What is the link between Orpheus si David? Ce legatura e intre Orfeu si David?

28 Apr

Orpheus (/ˈɔːrfiəs, ˈɔːrfjuːs/; Greek: Ὀρφεύς) was a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, film, opera, music, and painting.[1]

For the Greeks, Orpheus was a founder and prophet of the so-called “Orphic” mysteries. He was credited with the composition of the Orphic Hymns, a collection of which only two have survived.[2]Shrines containing purported relics of Orpheus were regarded as oracles. Some ancient Greek sources note Orpheus’ Thracian origins.[3]

 

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Etymology[edit]

Death of Orpheus by Mexican artist Antonio García Vega

Several etymologies for the name Orpheus have been proposed. A probable suggestion is that it is derived from a hypothetical PIE verb root *orbh-, “to put asunder, separate”. Cognates would include Greek ὄρφνη orphne, “darkness”,[69] and Greek ὀρφανός orphanos,[70]“fatherless, orphan”, from which comes English “orphan” by way of Latin. Orpheus would therefore be semantically close to goao,[69] “to lament, sing wildly, cast a spell”,[clarification needed] uniting his seemingly disparate roles as disappointed lover, transgressive musician and mystery-priest into a single lexical whole. The word “orphic” is defined as mystic, fascinating and entrancing, and, probably, because of the oracle of Orpheus, “orphic” can also signify “oracular”.[71] Fulgentius, a mythographer of the late 5th to early 6th century AD, gave the unlikely etymology meaning “best voice,” “Oraia-phonos”.[72]

 

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David (/ˈdvɪd/; Hebrew: דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian About this sound Ḏāwîḏ ; ISO 259-3 Dawid; Ancient Greek: Δαυίδ Davíd; Latin: Davidus, David) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning in c. 1010–970 BCE.[2]

Depicted as a valorous warrior of great renown, a poet, and musician credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms, King David is viewed in biblical sources as a righteous and effective king both in battle and in providing civil and criminal justice. He is described as a man after God‘s own heart in 1 Samuel 13:14 and Acts 13:22.

The Hebrew prophets regarded him as the ancestor of the future messiah.[3] The New Testament says he was an ancestor of Jesus.[4]

Biblical account

Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, 3rd century CE

God is angered when Saul, Israel’s king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice[5] and later disobeys a divine instruction to not only kill all of the Amalekites, but to destroy also their confiscated property.[6] Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel to anoint David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead.[7]

God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul’s courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David enters Saul’s service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king, who from time to time is troubled by an evil spirit.[8]

War comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat.[9] David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul’s army, declares that he can defeat Goliath.[10]Refusing the king’s offer of the royal armour,[11]he kills Goliath with his sling.[12]Saul inquires the name of the young hero’s father.[13]

Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him (“What else can he wish but the kingdom?”).[14] Saul plots his death, but Saul’s son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father’s schemes and David flees. He becomes a vassal of the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but Achish’s nobles question his loyalty,[15] and he is left behind to guard the camp when the Philistines march against Saul.[16] Jonathan and Saul are killed,[17] and David is anointed king over Judah.[18] In the north, Saul’s son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth is murdered.[19]

With the death of Saul’s son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all Israel.[20] He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital.[21] He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city,[22] intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of his sons.[23] Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David: “Your throne shall be established forever.”[24] David wins more victories over the Philistines, while the Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, Ammonites and Aramean king Hadadezer of Zobah pay tribute after being defeated.[25]

During a battle to conquer the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David seduces Bathsheba[26] and causes the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite.[27] In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that shall fall upon him: “the sword shall never depart from your house.”[28] In fulfillment of these words David’s son Absalom rebels.[29] The rebellion ends at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim. Absalom’s forces are routed, and Absalom is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree, and killed by Joab, contrary to David’s order. Joab was the commander of David’s army.[30] David laments the death of his favourite son: “O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!”[31] When David is old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king.[32] Bathsheba and Nathan go to David and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba’s son Solomon as king, according to David’s earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down.[33] David dies at the age of 70 after reigning 40 years,[34] and on his deathbed counsels Solomon to walk in the ways of God and to take revenge on his enemies.[35]

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