Who invented writing?

7 Feb

 

History of writing

Proto-writing

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The Tărtăria tablets discovered in Romania, Alba County, with inscriptions believed to be from the Vinča culture.

The early writing systems of the late fourth millennium B.C.E. were not a sudden invention. They were rather based on ancient traditions of symbol systems that cannot be classified as writing proper, but have many characteristics strikingly reminiscent of writing, so that they may be described as “proto-writing.” They may have been systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols that allowed to convey certain information, but they are probably devoid of linguistic information. These systems emerge from the early Neolithic, as early as the seventh millennium B.C.E., if not earlier.

Notably the Vinca script shows an evolution of simple symbols beginning in the seventh millennium, gradually increasing in complexity throughout the sixth millennium and culminating in the Tărtăria tablets of the fifth millennium with their rows of symbols carefully aligned, evoking the impression of a “text.” The hieroglyphic scripts of the Ancient Near East (Egyptian, Sumerian proto-Cuneiform, and Cretan) seamlessly emerge from such symbol systems, so that it is difficult to say, already because very little is known about the symbols’ meanings, at what point precisely writing emerges from proto-writing.

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In 2003, seventh millennium B.C.E. radiocarbon dated symbols Jiahu Script carved into tortoise shells were discovered in China. The shells were found buried with human remains in 24 Neolithic graves unearthed at Jiahu, Henan province, northern China. According to some archaeologists, the writing on the shells had similarities to the second millennium B.C.E. Oracle bone script.[3] The fourth millennium B.C.E. Indus script may similarly constitute proto-writing, possibly already influenced by the emergence of writing in Mesopotamia.

Cuneiform script

Cuneiform symbol

The original Sumerian writing system was derived from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the fourth millennium B.C.E., this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced about 2700-2500 B.C.E. by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but developed to include phonetic elements by the twenty-ninth century B.C.E. About 2600 B.C.E. cuneiform began to represent syllables of the Sumerian language.[4] Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. From the twenty-sixth century B.C.E., this script was adapted to the Akkadian language, and from there to others such as Hurrian and Hittite. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.

Egyptian hieroglyphs

Hieroglyphs written on an Egyptian Stele

The earliest known hieroglyphic inscriptions date to c. 3200 B.C.E., on such as the Narmer Palette, though the glyphs were based on a much older artistic tradition. The hieroglyphic script was logographic with phonetic adjuncts that included an effective alphabet.

Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and military authorities. The hieroglyph system was always difficult to learn, but in later centuries was purposely made even more so, as this preserved the scribes’ status.

The world’s oldest known alphabet was developed in central Egypt around 2000 B.C.E. from a hieroglyphic prototype, and over the next 500 years spread to Canaan and eventually to the rest of the world.

Chinese writing

Writings on tortoise shells discovered in modern China were dated ca 6600 B.C.E.

In China the early Chinese dynasties left behind many written documents. From the Shang Dynasty most of this writing has survived on bones or bronze implements. Markings on turtle shells, or jiaguwen, have been carbon-dated to around 1500 B.C.E.Historians have found that the type of media used had an effect on what the writing was documenting and how it was used.

There have been discoveries of tortoise-shell carvings dating back to c. 6000 B.C.E., like Jiahu Script, Banpo Script, but whether or not the carvings are of sufficient complexity to qualify as writing is under debate.[3] If it is deemed to be a written language, writing in China will predate Mesopotamian cuneiform, long acknowledged as the first appearance of writing, by some 2000 years, however it is more likely that the inscriptions are rather a form of proto-writing, similar to the contemporary European Vinca script. Undisputed evidence of writing in China dates from ca. 1600 B.C.E.

Indus script

Indus Script

The Middle Bronze Age Indus script dates back to the early Harrapan phase of around 3000 B.C.E.[5]It is unclear whether it should be considered an example of proto-writing (a system of symbols or similar), or if it is actual writing of the logographic-syllabic type of the other Bronze Age writing systems.

Early Semitic alphabets

The first pure alphabets (properly, “abjads,” mapping single symbols to single phonemes, but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol) emerged around 1800 B.C.E. in Ancient Egypt, as a representation of language developed by Semitic workers in Egypt. These early abjads remained of marginal importance for several centuries, and it is only towards the end of the Bronze Age that the Proto-Sinaitic script splits into the Proto-Canaanite alphabet (ca. 1400 B.C.E.) Byblos syllabary and the South Arabian alphabet (ca. 1200 B.C.E.).[6] The Proto-Canaanite was probably somehow influenced by the un-deciphered Byblos syllabary and in turn inspired the Ugaritic alphabet (ca. 1300 B.C.E.).

The rise of alphabetic writing

Main article: Alphabet

The Phoenician writing system was adapted from the Proto-Caananite script in around the eleventh century B.C.E., which in turn borrowed ideas from Egyptian hieroglyphics. This writing system was an abjad—that is, a writing system in which only consonants are represented. This script was adapted by the Greeks, who adapted certain consonantal signs to represent their vowels. This alphabet in turn was adapted by various peoples to write their own language, resulting in the Etruscan alphabet, and its own descendants, such as the Latin alphabet and Runes. Other descendants from the Greek alphabet include the Cyrillic alphabet, used to write Russian, among others. The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic script, from which the Hebrew script and also that of Arabic are descended.

Mesoamerica

Early Maya script interpreted into Spanish,from Diego de Landa’s 16thC. manuscript, Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán

Of several pre-Colombian scripts in Mesoamerica, the one that appears to have been best developed, and the only one to be deciphered, is the Maya script. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the third century B.C.E., and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the sixteenth century C.E.[7] Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing.

 

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The Cucuteni culture has been called the first urban culture in Europe.
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Decrypting of Tartaria inscription. Part-2. (Rectangular amulet). | Historia

 Chapter 1. Preamble.

The tablet (Fig. 1, 2 & 3), the object of present study is one of the three tablets discovered by Romanian archeologist Nicolae Vlassa in Tartaria village, county of Alba, Romania.   

The tablets are dated around 5.300 B.C. The skeleton of a woman was also discovered in the same neolithic tomb. The woman is supposed to have been the owner of the tablets and the author of the hieroglyphic texts found on them. She may have been a shaman and a priestess hence the texts may contain magic formulae with a religious content. In order to decrypt this text information resulting from the decryption of the hieroglyphic text on the Tartaria round tablet was used (B1).  

The tablet in Fig. 2 has a rectangular shape of 6.2 cm per 3.0 cm, with a hole in the middle. The tablet is divided in three boxes by two vertical lines located on both sides of the hole (Fig. 3). The middle box contains two hieroglyphs separated by a vertical segment of line. The left side box contains four hieroglyphs separated by segments of line (Fig. 3). The segments of line, used by the author of the text to separate the hieroglyphs, were ignored when decrypting the text. The hieroglyphs were numbered starting on the left side and were interpreted from left to right (Fig. 2). Hieroglyphs 2 and 7 contain two symbols each.

All astronomic maps used for the decryption of the hieroglyphs point to the north, unless otherwise stated. The stars on the astronomic maps have magnitudes between zero and six that is they are visible to the naked eye. As sources of information Sanskrit – English dictionaries (B4, B6, B7, B8), an English – Romanian dictionary (B5), information found in Vedic astrology, astronomy, mythology, religion and language (old Sanskrit), as well as in the Indo – European history, were used. For the decryption of hieroglyphs, the same method that was applied for decryption of the round Tartaria tablet (B1) was used. The hieroglyphs were associated with known constellations or parts of them.  The author of this study formulates the hypothesis that the language used in the hieroglyphic text of the rectangular tablet is Vedic (B1).

                             Chapter 2. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 1.

Hieroglyph no. 1 (Fig. 2) consists in a horizontal segment of line with branches of a fir tree, leading to the Lyra constellation (Fig. 4). By connecting the eta, zeta and beta stars, the theta, delta and gamma stars as well as the iota, delta and zeta stars respectively the configuration of the Lyra constellation is obtained (Fig. 5), perfectly superposing hieroglyph no. 1. The stars alpha, epsilon and zeta of the Lyra constellation belong to a cluster of stars, an astronomic asterism, known as “Abhijit” in the Vedic astrology. This asterism is associated with the twenty-eighth mansion of the Vedic lunar zodiac, the “Brahmi” or “Abhijit” mansion (B3). In the old Sanskrit language “Abhijit” is the name of Vega star. Taking into consideration the information at hand, hieroglyph no. 1 was interpreted as being synonym to “Abhijit”. In modern India “Abhijit” is a male name; thus “Abhijit” may be interpreted as the name of the owner of the inscription. Considering the hypothesis that the owner of the tablet was a woman, a priestess, the term “Abhijit” may be as well interpreted as a female name. When decrypting the hieroglyph, the context as well as the results obtained from decryption of the other hieroglyphs were taken into consideration.

                             Chapter 3. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 2.

Hieroglyph no. 2 (Fig.2) consists of two symbols interpreted together since they are not separated by a segment of line. The upper symbol consists of three arcs of circle with the concavities directed leftward. The lower symbol of hieroglyph no. 2, located on the lower row, consists of a small arc of circle with the concavity towards left and a larger arc of circle, oriented in the same direction, intersected by a horizontal segment that enters the arc of circle. By connecting the stars eta, zeta and beta, the stars theta, delta and gamma, and the stars 3124 Cyg, iota and the star BSC 7237 respectively by means of arcs of circle, three almost equal and equidistant semicircles are obtained. They will form an ensemble looking very much like the upper symbol of hieroglyph no. 2 (Fig. 6). An arc of circle with its center in the zeta star and a radius equal to the distance between stars zeta and 5387 was drawn (Fig. 7). This arc is located between stars alpha and zeta. By connecting stars Kappa, mu (5363) and star 5372 a larger arc of circle is obtained (Fig. 7). While connecting star alpha (Vega) with star 5377 the segment intersecting the arc is obtained (Fig. 7). The two arcs of circle represented in Fig. 7 form the lower symbol of hieroglyph no. 2. The configuration of the Lyra constellation in Fig. 8 perfectly resembles the shape of hieroglyph no. 2, when the upper and lower symbols are united in the same row. The stars alpha, epsilon and zeta make up a cluster known as “Abhijit” in the Vedic astrology. “Abhijit” cluster is associated with the twenty-eighth lunar mansion, the “Brahmi” or “Abhijit” mansion (B 3). The deity governing this mansion is the Brahma itself, the supreme God. For reasons that will be explained further on, the significance “tuvibrahmana” was chosen for the hieroglyph no.2, with the meaning “very devoted priest to God Brahma”. See the explanation at chapter 8.

                             Chapter 4. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 3.

This hieroglyph is the shape of capital upsilon (Y) (Fig.2). Above the hieroglyph there are two small segments, slightly tilted to the left. The surface of the tablet corresponding to this box was damaged; accordingly the two segments are not very clear. However, the two segments are less important and do not influence the decrypting solution of hieroglyph no. 3. The shape of the hieroglyph leads directly to the Cancer constellation which in the solar Vedic zodiac is known as “Karka” (Fig. 9). By rotating the Cancer constellation with 180 degrees the perfect image of hieroglyph no. 3 is obtained (Fig. 10). By connecting stars 1236 and 1248 and stars 1247 and 1237 respectively, the two segments and an image identical to hieroglyph no. 3 are obtained. The author of inscription represented the two segments above hieroglyph no. 3 in order to locate the hieroglyph exactly within the Cancer constellation. Whenever the author of the hieroglyphic text found it necessary, she used supplementary reference points in order to locate the hieroglyphs within the corresponding constellation, based on lunar mansions.

The Sanskrit language dictionary gives the translation “bright” for the term “karka”.

                            

 

                             Chapter 5. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 4.

The hieroglyph is the shape an hourglass (Fig. 2) which suggests directly the Orion constellation (Fig. 11). According to an ancient Vedic myth, the Orion constellation is the body of God Brahma who was killed by God Shiva with a three headed arrow. The three stars in the belt of Orion constellation, zeta, epsilon and delta respectively represent the three points where God Brahma was hit by arrow. The star lambda located in the north of the Orion constellation, known as “the stag head”, represents the head of God Brahma. Consequently, the significance of hieroglyph no. 4 is “God Brahma”.

                             Chapter 6. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 5.

 Hieroglyph no. 5 is the shape of a cross with rays (Fig. 2). Several scholars have remarked this shape. On basis of the information resulting from the decryption of hieroglyph no. 8, the “brahmanadhinam” hieroglyph of Tartaria inscription on the round tablet (B 1), the author of this study has concluded that the “cross” symbol leads directly to the Aquila constellation (Fig. 12), where the word “brahman” has been translated as “priest”. Hence, the decryption is as follows: In the Sanskrit language dictionary (B6) the synonyms “atmabhu” and “ireza”, both meaning “the name of Vishnu”, have been found for the word “brahman”. These are two of the 108 names of God Vishnu. The God Vishnu is the God patron of the twenty first lunar mansion, the “Shravana” mansion. The stars associated to this mansion are alpha, beta and gamma in the Aquila constellation (Fig. 12). By connecting the stars gamma, delta and star 444, and the stars theta and epsilon respectively a cross pointing to north – west is obtained (Fig. 13). From the above decryption we can conclude that the significance of hieroglyph no. 5 “cross” is “brahman”, that is “priest”. By connecting stars eta and upsilon, sigma and 502, iota and 461, alpha and 501, beta and mu, and the stars 463 and 480 the rays of the cross will be obtained (Fig. 14). The configuration of Aquila constellation as shown in Fig. 14 is perfectly similar to hieroglyph no. 5. In this case the rays of the cross obtained by connecting stars in Lyra constellation, precisely locate the cross in Lyra constellation. Consequently, hieroglyph no. 5 signifies “barman” that is “priest”.

                          

 

                             Chapter 7. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 6.    

This hieroglyph is the shape of the head of donkey (Fig. 2). The translation into Sanskrit of the word “donkey” is “smasmarya” (B4, B6, B7, B8). The Sanskrit word “smasmarya” means “to be remembered by Kama”, where “Kama” is one of the many names of God Vishnu. Taking into consideration the meaning of the previous hieroglyph no. 5, that is “priest”, the two hieroglyphs no. 5 and no. 6 can be interpreted together as “priest remarked by God Vishnu”, or “priest of God Vishnu”.   

                             Chapter 8. Decryption of hieroglyph no. 7.

The box on the right of the tablet contains two symbols that together form hieroglyph no. 7 (Fig. 2), because they are not separated by a segment of line.  The lower symbol is the shape of an hourglass, respectively the Orion constellation (Fig. 11). The upper symbol is the shape of a “stag head”. It is evident that this symbol represents the head of an animal belonging to the “chamois” species to be found in Romania and in Europe respectively. The shape of the horns is particular to this species of chamois.

The lambda star in Orion constellation, together with stars phi-1 and phi-2, make up a cluster (Fig. 11) that is an astronomic asterism known as “Mrigasira” (stag head) in the Vedic astrology. The synonyms of the word “mriga” (“stag”, “doe”) are “harina” (“stag”) and “harini” (“doe”). The word “harini” is one of the 108 names of Goddess Aditi. Hence, we can come to the conclusion that the two symbols together form a hieroglyph whose decrypted meaning is “Goddess Aditi”. The author of the inscription symbolically represented Orion constellation, “the hourglass”, together with the ”stag head” in order to place the “stag head” within the Orion constellation avoiding any confusion, since similar symbols belonging to other constellations can be found in the Vedic astrology.      

Remark.

Considering the signification of hieroglyphs 3 – 7, the following decrypting solution has been chosen: “…..of radiant God Brahma, priest of God Vishnu and Goddess Aditi”. It has been concluded that hieroglyph no. 2 should be given an interpretation that is compatible with the significance of the above text that is “priest” or “brahmana”. This meaning can be inferred from Aquila constellation. However, hieroglyph no. 2 leads to Lyra constellation, namely God Brahma.  On basis of these considerations the term “tuvibrahmana”, that is “very devoted priest of God Brahma”, or “priest of God Brahma” was adopted, so that the connection between hieroglyph no. 2 and Lyra constellation could be used. The phrase “priest of God Brahma” can be inferred from Lyra constellation, the constellation of God Brahma.      

                             Chapter 9. Conclusions.

Taking in consideration the decrypting results of the seven hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Tartaria rectangular tablet with middle hole, could be as follows:                                                                                                            “(I am) Abhijit, very devoted priest of Radiant God Brahma, priest of God               Vishnu and Goddess Aditi”.                                                                              The sentence is elliptical of subject and predicate.                                      The translation of the hieroglyphic text into Vedic language could be as follows:                                                                                                          “Abhijit, tuvibrahmana karka Brahma, brahmana smarasmarya Aditi”. The owner and quite possible the author of the inscription on the tablet gives some personal information: The name Abhijit, the position as priest in the community, and dedicated priest of Gods Brahma, Vishnu and Aditi.

The Tartaria rectangular tablet with a middle hole looks very much like the tablets used by Buddhist and Indian priests. The tablets may be 900 years old (Fig. 15) and are made of papyrus obtained from palm-lives. This type of tablets may have been copied from the Vedic priests. Although no written documents of the Vedic period of India have been discovered, it is well known that writing was used in the schools of Vedic priests. Tree leaves and bark, as well as papyrus were used as writing support.  The Buddhist tablets have a rectangular shape, a hole in the middle and two boxes on both sides of the hole, containing the sacred texts. The tablets are generally kept together, tied on a piece of rope. It is possible that the origin of the Buddhist and Vedic tablets derives from the clay tablets, having a shape similar to the tablet described in this paper, and belonging to the Indo-European priests that lived in the Carpatho-Danubian area 7.300 years ago.  

The middle box of the tablet contains two small hieroglyphs in the upper corners. They are small, undecipherable and damaged, therefore they were ignored in this study.                                                      

 

Bibliography.

 

B1. Decryption of Tartaria inscription.     http//:www.historia.ro/exclusive_web/general/articol/decriptarea-inscriptiei-Ta….

B2. Tartaria Tablets. www.google.ro.

B3. Vedic astrology. Moon nakshatras. www.google.ro.

B4. Old- Sanskrit English Dictionary. www.google.ro/spokensanscrit/de.

 B5. Dictionar englez – roman.ro. (English – Romanian Dictionary.)

B6. Sanskrit Dictionary. www.sanskritdictionary.com.

B7. APTE Sanskrit – English Dictionary.com. www.aa.tufs.ac.jp

B8. Sanskrit – English Dictionary. Monier – Wiliams.www.sanskrit.lexicon.uni.koelen.de.

B9. Lyra constellation. www.google.ro/dibonsmith.com.

B10. Cancer constellation.  IAU SKY & TELESCOPE.

B11. Orion constellation.    IAU SKY & TELESCOPE.

B12. Aquila constellation.   IAU SKY & TELESCOPE. 

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Fig.1. Tartaria tablets, Fig.2. Rectangular tablet with a middle hole.

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Fig.3. Separation segments between hieroglyphs.

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Fig.4. Lyra constellation.

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Fig. 5. Reprezentarea hieriglifei nr. 1 în constelatia Lira. Fig.5. Representation of hieroglyph no.1 in the Lyra constellation.

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Fig. 6. Simbolul din partea superioară a hieroglifei nr. 2. Reprezentare în constelația Lira. Fig.6. Representation of the symbol in the upper part of hieroglyph no. 2 in Lyra constellation.

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Fig. 7. Simbolul din partea inferioară a hieroglifei 2. Reprezentare în constelația Lira. Notă. Steaua 5387 (BSC 7043) are magnitudinea 6,01 și este vizibilă cu ochiul liber, chiar dacă depășește cu 0,01 limita de vizibilitate convențională. Fig.7. Representation of the symbol in the lower part of hieroglyph no. 2 in Lyra constellation. Remark: Star 5387 (BSC 7043) has a magnitude of 6.01. It is visible with the naked eye, although it is 0.01 higher than the conventional visibility limit.

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Fig. 8. Reprezentarea hieroglifei nr. 2 în constelația Lira. Fig.8. Representation of hieroglyph no. 2 in Lyra constellation.

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Fig. 9. Constelatia Cancerului. Fig.9. Cancer constellation.

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Fig. 10. Reprezentarea hieroglifei nr. 3 în constelația Cancerului. Fig.10. Representation of hieroglyph no. 3 in Cancer constellation.

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Fig. 11. Constelația Orion. Fig.11. Orion Constellation.

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Fig. 12. Constelația Acvila. Fig.12. Aquila constellation

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Fig.13. Representation of the word “brahma” in Aquila constellation

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Fig. 14. Reprezentarea hieroglifei nr. 5 în constelația Acvila. Fig.14. Representation of hieroglyph no. 5 in Aquila constellation

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FIG. 15. Manuscris indian sau nepalez pe frunze de palmier cu forma tăbliței de la Tărtăria. Fig.15. An Indian or Nepalese, Bhuddist manuscript on palm-leaf, having the shape of the Tartaria tablet.

Fig. 1. Hierogliphs 1 & 2  = devadhinam = the power of god; Hieroglifph 3 = jagat = dominates. Hieroglifphs 4 & 5 = sarvam = univers. Hierogliph 6 = mantradhinam = the power of mantras. Hierogliph 7 = ta devata = the god. Hierogliph 8 = brahmanadhinam = the power of brahmanas. Hierogliph 9 = tan = such. Hierogliph 10 = mantram = mantras. Hierogliph 11 = Brahmana = Brahmana. Hierogliph 12 = devata = god.Fig. 1. Hierogliphs 1 & 2 = devadhinam = the power of god; Hieroglifph 3 = jagat = dominates. Hieroglifphs 4 & 5 = sarvam = univers. Hierogliph 6 = mantradhinam = the power of mantras. Hierogliph 7 = ta devata = the god. Hierogliph 8 = brahmanadhinam = the power of brahmanas. Hierogliph 9 = tan = such. Hierogliph 10 = mantram = mantras. Hierogliph 11 = Brahmana = Brahmana. Hierogliph 12 = devata = god.

Chapter 1. Introduction.

The Tartaria tablet, Fig. 1, was descovered in 1961 in the village of Tartaria, Alba county, Roamania. The tablet is round, 6 cm (2.5 in) in diameter, was made by unbaked cley with a peripherial hole drilled through it. The tablet has symbols inscribed only on one face, was dated to around 5300 BC and have been the subject of controversy among archeologists, some of them claim that the symbols represent the earliest known writing in the world. The discovery was made in a neolitical tomb containing a woman skeleton. It has been suggested that the body was of a shaman, even if was a woman, and the text represents a magical formula.

To decrypt an unknown inscription are necesary two conditions: to know the language of the inscription and to know the phonetic values of the symbols: hierogliphs, syllables or letters. The author of decrypting supposed that the language of Tartaria inscription is vedic language, the language of vedic arians setlled down in north-west of India around 1500 B.C. The specialists concluded that the vedic language is very closed to proto-indo-european language and even is this ancient language. A modern hipothesis sugests that the indo-european civilisation has begun a few thousend of years ago in the north and south sides of lower Danube, including Roamania. As a conclusion, the language of Tartaria inscription is indo-european language, that is vedic language. The author of decrypting found in religious vedic literature an incantation, a „mantra”, used in situation when a vedic priest was recognised as a third grade priest, the higher position as a vedic priest and supposed that this mantra is the solution for Tartaria inscription decrypting. By comparison of mantra’s words and inscription’s hierogliphs the author of decripting concluded that the two texts matches perfecty. Using information from vedic astrology, vedic astronomy, vedic mithology, vedic religion and vedic language, (old sanskrit) were found connections between mantra’s words and important constellations or parts of them. Each hierogliph is a representation of a known constellation or a part of a constellation. All stars used in this study in order to find hierogliphs inside constellation maps have magnitudes between zero and six, that is they are visible with the naked eye. Exceptions will be explained.

The vedic mantra is:
Devadhinam jagat sarvam,
Mantradhinam ta devata,
Tan mantram brahmanadhinam.
Brahmana mama devata.

The translation is:
The univers is under power of god,
The god is under power of mantras,
Such mantras are under power of brahmanas.
Brahmana is my god.

„Brahma”, „Brahman” or „Brahmana” is the supreme vedic god, „brahma”, „brahman” or „brahmana” is a vedic priest, „mantra” is a sacred expression, spiritual sound, a syllable, an word or a group of words that is supposed to have a spiritual power. This power may exist when the mantras are present in audible or written form or present in mind. The decrypting method started from the vedic mantra, considered as the final solution, traversing the decrypting process until the hierogliphic text, using information from the five mentionated domains of vedic culture. The written side of the tablet is split by two diameters in four quarters that were treated in clockwise direction, the first quarter is on the right, up. The hierogliphs were treated from left to right and all astronomic charts are oriented to north, if not otherwise is specified. Order numbers of the hierogliphs are specified in Fig. 1, where each hierogliph was assigned with a word. There were used Sanskrit-English dictonaries.

The words „devadhinam”, „mantradhinam” and „brahmanadhinam” contain the component „dhinam”. The hierogliphs assigned with these words contain the same symbol, a „semicircle”. According to this notice, a semicircle, in any position, has the meaning of the word „dhinam”, that is „power”. This conclusion was supported by the ideea that the bow was a powerful weapon used by vedic fighters in theyrs struggles. The semicircle symbol is found in hierogliphs No. 1, 2, 6 & 8.

Chapter 2. Decrypting of hierogliphs 1 & 2

The hierogliphs 1 & 2 were treated together, both of them having a „D” shape, Fig. 1. According to the oldest vedic mith, Orion constellation is the body of the supreme god Brahma, killed by god Shiva and the star lambda is the head of Brahma. The three stars from Orion belt are the places where the god Brahma received the finishing stroke. In Fig. 2 can be noticed two bows drawn by connections between a few stars located in the east of Orion and west of Taurus constellations. The two bows can have the mening „the power of Brahma”. Comparing the two bows in Fig. 2 and the group of 1 & 2 hierogliphs in Fig. 1, it can be seen a perfect match, regarding direction, sizes and relative position. The conclusion is that the meaning of the two hierogliphs „DD” is „the power of Brahma”.

Chapter 3. Decrypting of hierogliph 3

This hierogliph consists of a horizontal segment crossed by five small segments, and has a comb shape, Fig. 1. Tartaria inscription author has used a complex method to create the hierogliphs, making conections between mantra’s words, vedic lunar mansions, associated stars of the these zodiacal mansions and the constellations that contain associated stars. The word „jagat” has no connection with vedic lunar zodiac, but its synonym „aditi”, found in dictionaries, leads to the Aditi godes, the ruler of the seven’s lunar mansion, or mansion Punarvasu. The associated stars of this mansion are: Castor A, Castor B, Castor C, Pollux and sigma, Fig. 3. Castor is a triple star. This group of stras, called Punarvasu asterism, belongs to Gemini constellation. Is very easy to notice near Punarvasu asterism the five stars kappa, upsilon, iota, tau and teta contained in the arms of the twin brothers. The hierogliph „jagat”, the comb, was found in Gemini constellation. The group of these five stars looks like hierogliph 3, that has the meaning „jagat” or „to dominate”.

Chapter 4. Decrypting of hierogliphs 4 & 5

These hierogliphs were decrypted together. At first sight this group seems to be two circles with diferent diameters. After a closer analysis results the biger circle is an ellipse and the smaller one is an arrow pointed to north. At the basis of this arrow there is a small arc of circle, Fig. 1. The word „sarva” is a synonym of the word „jagat”, that is „univers”. This information leads to Gemini constellation, Fig 4. By conections between stars alpha, beta, kappa, lambda, zeta, omega, tau and again alpha was drawn an heptagon that can be positionated perfecly in an ellipse. The long axis of the ellipse contains the stars lambda, iota and ro. Conecting the stars niu, gama, epsilon, teta, Propus via M35 nebula and miu, was drawn an arrow pointed to north. Conecting the stars alpha (Betelgeuse) and miu from Orion constellation and star ksi from Gemini constellation was drawn a small arc of circle. Comparing carefuly the image in Fig. 4 and the group of hierogliphs 4 & 5 can be concluded they matches perffectly. The group of hierogliphs 4 &5 was found in Gemini and Orion constellations. As a conclusion this group of hierogliphs has the meaning „sarva” or „univers”.

Chapter 5. Decrypting of hierogliph 6

This hierogliph consist of two symbols, Fig. 1. The lower symbol is a semicircle, and the upper symbol is a triangle pointed down and three parallel arrows pointed up, perpendicular on the triangle base. The semicircle has the mening „power”, as was decided before. The word „mantra” has the meaning „the fifth lunar mansion”, that is the mansion Mrigasira, associated with Mrigasira asterism, consisting of three stars, lambda, phi-1 and phi-2, belonging to Orion Constellation, Fig. 5. Using the base of the triangle alpha, gama, lambda, which contains Mrigasira asterism, were drawn three arrows perpendicular on triangle base that point the three big stars from Orion belt, zeta, epsilon and delta, Fig. 5.

Rotating this triangle with 180 degrees, the three arrows will point the north. This new figure is very closed to upper symbol of the hierogliph 6, Fig 1, that has the mening „mantra”. The whole hierogliph has the mening „mantradhinam” or „the power of mantras”. Inscription author has drawn the three arrows to indicate location in cosmic space of Mrigasira triangle in Orion constellation, in order to be identified precisely in this place. This cosmic configuration is unic in the canopy of heaven

Chapter 6. Decrypting of hierogliph 7
This hierogliph consist of two symbols, Fig. 1. The upper symbol is a point inside a semiellipse, the simbol „point-semiellipse”. The lower symbol is a triangle with a horizontal base and a perpedicular segment on the triangle axis of symmetry, at the top of the triangle. This segment have bent extremities. The translation of the word „devata” is „the deity”, an important god, and the meanings of the word „ta” are: jewel, fighter and virtue. The expression asigned to this hierogliph, „ta devata”, has the meaning „the bright, unconquerable and virtuos deity” that is „the supreme god Brahma”. This meaning leads to the twenty-eighth lunar mansion, Abhijit mansion, ruled by the lord Brahma. The associated stars of this mansion are: alpha, epsilon and zeta, belonging to Abhijit asterism, in Lyra constellation, Fig. 6. Conecting the stars: zeta, delta, iota, gama and again zeta, was drawn the triangle zeta, iota, gama. Conecting the stars 93808, 7146, 6997 and 90781 has been drawn the transverse segment with bent extremities, that is parallel with the triangle basis, the segment iota-gama. The stars 93808 and 90781 have magnitudes biger than six (smaller luminosity), magnitudes of 6.49 and 7.37, respectively. It is supposed that these stars were seen by ancient astronomers having high visual acuity. Using the star Vega as the center, the line zeta-Vega as the small axis and the star epsilon a point belonging to an ellipse, it can be drawn an ellipse. In Fig. 6, it has been drawn a semiellipse around the star Vega, very closed to the semiellipse existed in the hierogliph 7. It is supposed that the hierogliph’s author had information about circle and ellipse construction. After a closer analysis of the hierogliph 7 results a point marked clearly on left side of the semiellipse. This point is the star epsilon marked by hierogliph’s author in order to locate precisely the point-semiellipse symbol in Lira constellation. By conection between stars Vega and zeta has been completed the image of priest, or god, wearing a long robe, with both arms raised at the shoulders level and bent forearms, upwards and downwards, respectively. This is the image of the god Brahma, where the star Vega is the head of Brahma. It is possible to conclude that the decrypting of the hierogliph 7 is „the god Brahma”.

Chapter 7. Decrypting of hierogliph 8

This hierogliph consist of two symbols. Fig. 1. The left side symbol is a semicircle and has the meaning „power”, as specified before. The right side symbol is a cross in horizontal position, part of the cross is placed inside the semicircle.

The word „brahmana” has no connection with vedic lunar zodiac. Using the dictionaries, has been found two meanings of the word „brahmana”: „atmabhu” and „ireza”. Both of them have a second meaning „the name of Vishnu”, a vedic god, the lord of the twenty-first lunar mansion, the mansion Shravana. The associated stars of this mansion are: alpha (Altair), beta and gama, belonging to Shravana asterism, in Aquila constellation, Fig. 7. Conecting the stars teta-zeta and gama-delta was drawn a cross, that in conection with the segment delta-star 444 formed the perfect cross ensemble of the hierogliph 8. That means the whole cross can be decypt as „brahmana” and the hierogliph 8 has the meaning „brahmanadhinam” or „the power of brahmanas”.

Chapter 8. Decrypting of hierogliph 9

The hierogliph 9 consist of two identical symbols, two parallel arrows with top angle of 90 degrees, pointing east, Fig. 1. The word „tan” has no connection with vedic lunar zodiac, as well. A relative of the word „tan” is „tanugrha”, a word with the same root, „tanu”. The word’s „tanugrha” translation is „the first lunar mansion” or mansion Ashvayuja. The associated stars of this mansion are, beta and gama, belonging to Aries constellation, Fig. 8. Conecting the stars epsilon, star 41 and alpha and the stars sigma, niu and iota has been found an image of two parallel arrows with the top angle of 90 degrees, pointing the north direction, Fig. 8. By rotation of the Fig. 8 with 90 degrees to east, was found the image of the hierogliph 9. The most convenable translation for the word „tan” is „uninterrupted succession”.

Chapter 9. Decrypting of hierogliph 10

This hierogliph consist of two horizontal, parallel segments crossed by an oblique segment with two discontinuities in the upper and lower sides of the two parallel segments, Fig. 1. The part of the oblique segment located between the two parallel segments is placed on the right side of the upper and lower parts of the oblique line. The translation of the word „mantra” is „the fifth lunar mansion” or the mansion Mrigasira. This information leads direcly to Orion constellation, Fig.9. Conecting the stars: upsilon-star 6074, alpha-kappa, epsilon-zeta and delta (Mintaka)-star gama of the Monoceros constellation was found the image from Fig. 9, which is identical with hierogliph 10. For identification , the Orion constellation was rotated with 90 degrees to west. As a conclusion, the significance of the hierogliph 10 is „mantra”. Taking in consideration decrypting of the hierogliphs 8, 9 and 10, the third verse of vedic mantra can be: „the power of brahmanas (dominates) the uninterrupted succession of mantras”. The „uninterrupted succession of mantras” is supposed to be continuous mantras in audible form coming from brahmans during the religious service.

Chapter 10. Decrypting of hierogliph 11

This hierogliph has the form of a royal throne, Fig. 1. The word „Brahmana” leads directy to the twenty-eighth lunar mansion, „Brahmi” or Abhijit. The associated stars of this mansion are: alpha, epsilon and zeta, in Lyra constellation, Fig. 10. Has been conected the folowing stars: alpha-zeta, zeta-delta, delta-iota, beta-gama, gama-M56 nebula, delta-gama, iota-star 19 and the star 7237-star 13. The image in Fig. 10 is the royal throne of the supreme god Brahma, where the star Vega is the head of Brahma. The image in Fig.10 is very closed to hierogliph 11. Conclusion is: decrypting of the hierogliph 11 is „Brahma”.

Chapter 11. Decrypting of hierogliph 12

This hierogliph has a „D” shape, but not an usual one, not the same shape like hierogliphs 1 and 2, Fig. 1. It is visible that the semicircle of „D” passes in the left side of „D”, in both corners of the symbol „D”. The diameter of „D” outruns the lower limit of the symbol „D” in the left lower corner of the symbol. The words „devata” and „deva” are synonyms. For the word „devata” was found the meaning „the deity”, that is an important god and for word „deva” was found the meaning „supreme spirit”. These meanings lead diretly to the meaning „Brahma”, or „supreme god” and to the twety-eighth lunar mansion „Brahmi” or Abhijit, in Lyra constellation, Fig.11. There is a group of eight visible stars located in the south-east of Lyra constellation, with magnitudes lower than six, four of them belonging to Hercules constellation. This group of stars has the pefect shape of the symbol „D”, containing the star kappa and the star 99. Diameter of the this cosmic „D” is limited by the distance between stars alpha and beta of Lyra constellation. The arows originated in the „D” shaped symbol points the stars alpha and beta. The arrow originated in the lower corner of „D” oriented to south-west points the star 8991, located in the Vulpecula constellation. The arrows originated in the corners of the cosmic „D” locate precisely this group of stars, in the cosmic space, near the stars alpha and beta in Lyra constellation, related with the location of the star 8991 from Vulpecula constellation. This cosmic configuration is unic in the canopy of heaven. The extensions existing in the corners of hierogliph 12, Fig. 1 are identical to the three arrows originated in the corners of cosmic „D”, Fig. 11. Image in Fig. 11 is identical to hierogliph 12, Fig. 1. The cosmic „D” is connected directly with Lyra constellation, dominated by god Brahma. The conclusion is that the decrypting of hierogliph 12 is „supreme god”.

Taking in consideration the decrypting results of the 12 hierogliphs of Tartaria inscription, the correct translation may be:

The power of Brahma dominates the univers,
The power of mantras (dominates) the god Brahma,
The power of brahmanas (dominates) the uniterrupted succession of mantras.
Brahma (is my) supreme god.

Chapter 12. Conclusions

1. In order to decrypt Tartaria inscription the study author made the hypothesis that the vedic language is the language of Tartaria inscription. The hypothesis was right.

2. The second hypothesis was that the decripting solution is the vedic mantra specified in chapter 1. The hypothesis was right.

3. As a result of decrypting was found an important conclusion: the sacred chandra-bindu (moon-point or point-semicircle) symbol of Hinduism, Fig. 12, is very closed to the point-semiellipse symbol from Tartaria inscription of hierogliph 7. In Hiduism, bindu is the god Brahma itself, but in carpato-danubian religion, the point of the point-semiellipse symbol is the head of god Brahma, the star Vega. That means the origin of chandra-bindu was found in the religion of carpato-danubian indo-europeans who have lived in Transilvania 7,300 years ago. Chandra-bindu symbol is part of a more complex symbol, „Aum” symbol, the most important symbol of Hindu religion, Fig. 13. In Hinduism, the „Aum” symbol is an oral and of view representation of the god Brahma.

4. Successfully decripting of Tartaria inscription may prove the existence of indo-europeans in carpato-danubian space 7,300 years ago.

5. The shaman of Tartaria was a third grade vedic priest and the magic formula is the vedic mantra presented in Chapter 1 or the version of this mantra presented above.

 

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Proto-Indo-European speaking herders from Yamna zone have expanded themselves to Late Cucuteni-Trypillian area.

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Vinca:
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Vinca Alphabet Symbols

The latter signs are characteristic script signs and many of them occur on the Tartaria tablets and the Lepenski Vir stone.prehistory.it
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Clay Anthropomorphic Figures

The noted archaeologist Marija Gimbutas based at least part of her famous Kurgan Hypothesis and Old European culture theories on these Cucuteni-Trypillian clay figurines.quickiwiki.com
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Finnish Shaman Drum

The drum depicted and exhibited at Museum Europäischer Kulturen, Berlin, in Germany is a replica of a real Sami drum or runebomme.tumblr.com
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Movable Type in Chinese Writing

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Vinca Culture History

Other examples are Tordos-Vinca culture in the Carpathian Basin, Aegean Islands, Tepe-Yahya in Iran, writings from Troy and Egypt.aleximreh.wordpress.com
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Ancient Slavic Culture Symbol

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http://www2.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_1__antiguas_europa.htm

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Banatean ‘Sphinx’ in the Cerna Valley, Topleţ, Romania
A mysterious megalith, forgotten by all!

Can this be the result of the vagaries of weather? It’s doubtful, given the perfection of form. Viewed from one angle, we conclude that we are dealing with an anthropomorphic representation. It’s hard to imagine that the wind and rain have tried to sculpture a rock to represent a human head. And not just any head. But a majestic, mysterious, emitting a power and authority

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” Immortality Land ” Bucegi

We learn about the first research done in Bucegi, since 1927, specifically in the eastern part of the massif, Ialomita Valley, in an area known as the “seven springs. ”

It is said that there “Zamolxe”, god of the Dacians,was drinking water. Dacians called the place “the immortality land”.

Seven Springs was the encrusted symbol not only on the shieldsof the Dacians, but is found on Trajan’s Column.

Even in this place in the Bucegi there is a source of water that is the purest in the world. In the period 1927-1935, there were studies done by both the Romanian researchers, and by the French.

Scientists have shown that the bacterial load of the spring water is zero, a unique event in the world.

Other research has been done in 80 years. Scientists have found that the source is feed from a huge underground lake.

This legend reminds us of the underground passageway in the mountains!

The fact is that the spring flow is 4,000 gallons per second.

All the information was classified by the Communist authorities.

http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread661940/pg13&mem=

 

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Harald Harmann, cercetator la ,,Research Centre on Multilingualism” din Bruxelles, afirma:

“Tablitele de la Tartaria sunt primele semne de scriere incizata, care preced pictogramele mesopotamiene (3500-3300 i.Hr.), ieroglifele egiptene (3200-3300 i.Hr.), pictogramele cu inscriptii de pe Valea Indului (2500 i.Hr.), sau pe cele din China (1500-1200 i.Hr.), ca si enigmaticile mesaje ale zapotecilor mexicani (600 i.Hr.).

 

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Fragile Earth Feb 7 143 107 rss
Methuselah, a nearly 5,000 year old bristlecone pine, the second oldest known. . br /> An international team of researchers from universities in Japan, the US and Switzerland have discovered evidence that indicates a heretofore unknown solar phenomenon having taken place in 5480 BC. The evidence comes from anaylsis of…
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Corabii neolitice

“Au fost case aici, acum sase-sapte mii de ani”, imi spunea profesorul Ciugudean. “O intreaga asezare stabila. Case mari, din lemn “muruit” cu lut, toate cu doua camere si cu acareturi. Oameni “sedentari”, adica legati de pamant, care traiau multe generatii in acelasi loc, crescand animale, cultivand pamantul cu niste tehnici agricole pe care le mai folosesc si azi taranii nostri. La acea vreme, asa ceva nu exista in restul Europei, decat in spatiul carpato-danubian. Foloseau razboiul de tesut vertical, cu greutati. Cunosteau mestesugul modelarii si pictarii lutului, plamadind adevarate opere de arta. Ba mai mult, stapaneau si arta… navigatiei! Pe fundurile unor vase au fost gasite incizii cu reproducerile exacte ale unor ambarcatiuni cu panze. Chiar Vlassa a gasit o asemenea “corabie”.” O alta a gasit-o Horia Ciugudean, la sapaturile din 89. “Da, nu trebuie sa ne surprinda. La nivelul bronzului timpuriu, aurul transilvanean circula chiar pe cale maritima, existau legaturi pe ape intre asezarile si comunitatile respective. Cel care a desenat aceste corabii e sigur ca le-a si vazut. Le-a vazut in realitate, cu ochii lui!…”

O lumina stranie, portocalie, invaluie ogorul gol, accentuand parca si mai mult adancimea straturilor scormonite de plug. Soarele apune, umbre fantastice joaca peste intinderea de pamant milenar. In fata, e lunca intinsa si verde a Muresului. Abia vezi raul, ondulandu-se pierdut in mijlocul unei vai imense, de cativa kilometri. “Se zice ca altadata pe-aici au fost corabii? Nu-i de mirare”, zice parintele Marin. “Altadata Muresul a fost mare, incalcit, se revarsa mereu, intre malurile astea indepartate. Ca o mare. Uitati-va acolo, vedeti ceva, ca doua scobituri in tarm? Acolo au fost doua “valaie” mari, adica un fel de ecluze adanci, sapate de mana omului, in vremuri preistorice. De sus, dinspre Pianu, coborau carele cu minereu de aur, pana la muchia tarmului. Descarcau pe ambarcatiunile care apoi se lansau pe apele crescute ale Muresului, ajungand pana la Arad si chiar mai departe. N-o spun eu, o spun istoricii. Aici, in lunca asta, a fost odinioara o asezare fantastica, un furnicar de oameni traind laolalta, facand agricultura, minerit, negot. Ceva mai incolo, tot pe Mures, au fost asezarile neolitice de la Turdas, Daia Romana, Alba-Iulia… Iar in mijlocul acestui spatiu magnific, Tartaria…”

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Opinii internationale despre tablitele de la Tartaria

Anul 1969. “The Scientific American Journal” prezinta tablitele de la Tartaria ca fiind “similare cu cele din Mesopotamia, dar cu 1000 de ani mai vechi”.

Academicianul bulgar, prof. dr. Vladimir I. Gheorghiev:

“Tablitele de la Tartaria sunt mai vechi cu un mileniu decat monumentele scrierii sumeriene.(…) Scrierea, sub forma pictogramelor, a aparut in sud-estul Europei, si nu in Mesopotamia, cum se credea pana atunci, desenele si semnele de pe cele trei tablite reprezentand “cea mai veche scriere din lume”!”

Haral Harmann, cercetator la “Research Centre on Multilingualism” din Bruxelles, in cadrul simpozionului stiintific “Originile scrierii”, tinut in perioada 23-29 octombrie 2000, la Milano, afirma:

“Tablitele de la Tartaria sunt primele semne de scriere incizata, care preced pictogramele mesopotamiene (3500-3300 i.Cr.), hieroglifele egiptene (3200-3000 i.Cr.), pictogramele cu inscriptii de pe Valea Indului (2500 i.Cr.) sau pe cele din China (1500-1200 i.Cr.), ca si enigmaticele mesaje ale zapotecilor mexicani (600 i.Cr.)”.

Sumerologul american John A. Halloran:

“Cum se poate explica faptul ca intr-o regiune din vestul Romaniei, inconjurata cu nume sumeriene ca Urastie (Orastie, n.n.), Simeria, Kugir (Cugir, n.n.), s-au gasit trei tablite din lut local, cu pictograme sumeriene, dar mai vechi cu 1.000 de ani decat cele din Mesopotamia?(…) Asumandu-ne o origine triviala, recenta, romana, sigur ca acestea nu ne mai apartin.”

Cercetatorul american Milton McChesney Winn: teza sa de doctorat la Ucla, din 1973, se intitula “Aparitia scrisului, tablitele de la Tartaria”.

Cercetatorul italian Marco Merlini (director al Prehistory Knowledge Project si membru al World Rock Art Academy, Roma), unul dintre cei mai prestigiosi arheologi ai Europei de azi, este cel care a testat tablitele si osemintele de la Tartaria, la Universitatea din Roma, confirmandu-le vechimea.

“In 1961, in Romania a avut loc o descoperire foarte importanta, pentru ca a schimbat intreaga cronologie a istoriei in Europa. Prin ea, s-a schimbat geografia legendei unde au inceput civilizatiile. Acum, este randul sa gandim ca scrierea a inceput in Europa, cu 2000 de ani inaintea Sumerului, ca de-a lungul Dunarii a inceput o civilizatie importanta, cu aproape opt mii de ani in urma, o societate nu mai putin importanta ca aceea din Egipt sau Mesopotamia.”

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