16 Dec


The remaining small population of an estimated 450 North Atlantic Right Whales is deemed dangerously low to guarantee this sub-species will not go extinct. There is an estimate of only 100 breeding females. Plus the species has a low known birth rate. Seventeen North Atlantic Right Whales have been washed up dead this year in the St. Lawrence  and on the north east U.S. Coast.

Collisions with ships and fishing net entanglement are the prime dangers identified to this beautiful whale! Governments need to get more into this crisis quickly. In Canada, speed limits for ship traffic has been reduced, not sure what the U.S. is doing? But in any event, much more need t be done by both governments to ensure the long-term survivability of this whale.

You should contact the Federal Canadian Minister of Fisheries and Oceans in Canada, or your, local and regional politicians in this regard…

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OCEAN PLASTIC CLEANUP- Innovative Thinking!

16 Dec


mukeshbalani.com | “You heard it here first…if you haven’t already heard it elsewhere”… The Massive Project to Clean Up the Ocean With a Two-Kilometer Screen Every year, eight million metric tons of plastic enter the ocean, threatening just about every marine species and ecosystem. As the global population grows and countries develop, this is only […]

via singularityhub.com | The Massive Project to Clean Up the Ocean With a Two-Kilometer Screen — mukeshbalani.com

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The unstoppable walk to political reform – ‘as an academic, it’s not my field.” He said, “What about as a citizen? As a citizen.”‘

16 Dec

Lawrence Lessig – TED.com

It’s just about 20 years ago, June 1994, when Intel announced that there was a flaw at the core of their Pentium chip. Deep in the code of the SRT algorithm to calculate intermediate quotients necessary for iterative floating points of divisions — I don’t know what that means, but it’s what it says on Wikipedia — there was a flaw and an error that meant that there was a certain probability that the result of the calculation would be an error, and the probability was one out of every 360 billion calculations. So Intel said your average spreadsheet would be flawed once every 27,000 years. They didn’t think it was significant, but there was an outrage in the community. The community, the techies, said, this flaw has to be addressed. They were not going to stand by quietly as Intel gave them these chips. So there was a revolution across the world. People marched to demand — okay, not really exactly like that — but they rose up and they demanded that Intel fix the flaw. And Intel set aside 475 million dollars to fund the replacement of millions of chips to fix the flaw. So billions of dollars in our society was spent to address a problem which would come once out of every 360 billion calculations.


Number two, a poet. This is Martin Niemöller. You’re familiar with his poetry. Around the height of the Nazi period, he started repeating the verse, “First they came for the communists, and I did nothing, did not speak out because I was not a communist. Then they came for the socialists. Then they came for the trade unions. Then they came for the Jews. And then they came for me. But there was no one left to speak for me.” Now, Niemöller is offering a certain kind of insight. This is an insight at the core of intelligence. We could call it cluefulness. It’s a certain kind of test: Can you recognize an underlying threat and respond? Can you save yourself or save your kind? Turns out ants are pretty good at this. Cows, not so much. So can you see the pattern? Can you see a pattern and then recognize and do something about it? Number two. Number three, a boy. This is my friend Aaron Swartz. He’s Tim’s friend. He’s friends of many of you in this audience, and seven years ago, Aaron came to me with a question. It was just before I was going to give my first TED Talk. I was so proud. I was telling him about my talk, “Laws that choke creativity.” And Aaron looked at me and was a little impatient, and he said, “So how are you ever going to solve the problems you’re talking about? Copyright policy, Internet policy, how are you ever going to address those problemsso long as there’s this fundamental corruption in the way our government works?”


So on January 11, the anniversary of Aaron’s death, we began a walk that ended on January 24th, the day that Granny D was born. A total of 200 people joined us across this walk, as we went from the very top to the very bottom of New Hampshire talking about this issue. And what was astonishing to me, something I completely did not expect to find, was the passion and anger that there was among everyone that we talked to about this issue. We had found in a poll that 96 percent of Americans believe it important to reduce the influence of money in politics. Now politicians and pundits tell you, there’s nothing we can do about this issue,Americans don’t care about it, but the reason for that is that 91 percent of Americans think there’s nothing that can be done about this issue. And it’s this gap between 96 and 91 that explains our politics of resignation. I mean, after all, at least 96 percent of us wish we could fly like Superman, but because at least 91 percent of us believe we can’t, we don’t leap off of tall buildings every time we have that urge. That’s because we accept our limits, and so too with this reform. But when you give people the sense of hope, you begin to thaw that absolute sense of impossibility. As Harvey Milk said, if you give ’em hope, you give ’em a chance, a way to think about how this change is possible. Hope. And hope is the one thing that we, Aaron’s friends, failed him with, because we let him lose that sense of hope. I loved that boy like I love my son. But we failed him. And I love my country, and I’m not going to fail that. I’m not going to fail that. That sense of hope, we’re going to hold, and we’re going to fight for,however impossible this battle looks.


What’s next? Well, we started with this march with 200 people, and next year, there will be 1,000 on different routes that march in the month of January and meet in Concord to celebrate this cause, and then in 2016, before the primary, there will be 10,000 who march across that state, meeting in Concord to celebrate this cause. And as we have marched, people around the country have begun to say, “Can we do the same thing in our state?” So we’ve started a platform called G.D. Walkers, that is, Granny D walkers, and Granny D walkers across the country will be marching for this reform. Number one. Number two, on this march, one of the founders of Thunderclap, David Cascino, was with us, and he said, “Well what can we do?” And so they developed a platform, which we are announcing today, that allows us to pull together voters who are committed to this idea of reform. Regardless of where you are, in New Hampshire or outside of New Hampshire, you can sign up and directly be informed where the candidates are on this issue so you can decide who to vote for as a function of which is going to make this possibility real. And then finally number three, the hardest. We’re in the age of the Super PAC. Indeed yesterday, Merriam announced that Merriam-Webster will have Super PAC as a word. It is now an official word in the dictionary.So on May 1, aka May Day, we’re going to try an experiment. We’re going to try a launching of what we can think of as a Super PAC to end all Super PACs. And the basic way this works is this. For the last year, we have been working with analysts and political experts to calculate, how much would it cost to win enough votes in the United States Congress to make fundamental reform possible? What is that number? Half a billion? A billion? What is that number? And then whatever that number is, we are going to kickstart, sort of, because you can’t use KickStarter for political work, but anyway, kickstart, sort of, first a bottom-up campaign where people will make small dollar commitments contingent on reaching very ambitious goals, and when those goals have been reached, we will turn to the large dollar contributors, to get them to contribute to make it possible for us to run the kind of Super PAC necessary to win this issue, to change the way money influences politics, so that on November 8, which I discovered yesterday is the day that Aaron would have been 30 years old, on November 8, we will celebrate 218 representatives in the House and 60 Senators in the United States Senate who have committed to this idea of fundamental reform.


Mayday PAC

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mayday PAC is an American crowd-fundednon-partisanSuper PAC created by Harvard Law School professor and activist Lawrence Lessig. Its purpose is to help elect candidates to the Congress to pass campaign finance reform.[1] It is notable for raising large sums from numerous contributors in a short span of time[2][3][4] – nearly $11 million in 2014[5] – and was described in the Los Angeles Times as the “super PAC to end all super PACs.”[6] The group spent over $10 million in the November 2014 elections, but its strategic plan of electing candidates friendly to campaign finance reform failed.[7][8]

In August 2015, shortly before announcing his candidacy for President of the United States, Lessig resigned from the PAC and was replaced by board member Zephyr Teachout. Teachout left the post in December 2015 when she announced she was running for Congress in New York State and was replaced by Cyrus Patten, longtime anti-corruption advocate.[9]

Mayday PAC has since announced a new, local approach, citing “Across the country, citizens are passing reforms to their local campaign finance laws. This takes courage that is currently lacking in Congress.” [10]

Original strategy[edit]

Mayday PAC’s original strategy had four stages: (1) in 2014 testing intervention in Congressional races, (2) in 2016 electing a Congressional majority in favor of reform, (3) in 2017 winning election reform legislation, and (4) pressing for whatever Constitutional reform is necessary to secure the reform.[11]


Lawrence Lessig has advocated electoral reform for many years,[12] and conceived the idea of a crowdfunded Super PAC as a way to achieve such reform. Mayday PAC began in May 2014,[1] but before officially launching the fund raising effort, Lessig led 200 people on a walk from Dixville Notch to Nashua in the New Hampshire, stopping at coffee shops and small events to talk with people about money in politics, to generate media attention; further walks are planned.[6] He explained, “Yes, we want to spend big money to end the influence of big money… Ironic, I get it. But embrace the irony.”[13]

The fund-raising plan was a variation on traditional crowd funding approaches in that specified fund-raising targets must be met by certain dates.[14] Lessig explained that the immediate goal is to raise enough money to sway five elections to Congress.[15] He said, ” We’ve structured this as a series of matched-contingent goals. We’ve got to raise $1 million in 30 days; if we do, we’ll get that $1 million matched. Then we’ve got to raise $5 million in 30 days; if we do, we’ll get that $5 million matched as well. If both challenges are successful, then we’ll have the money we need to compete in 5 races in 2014. Based on those results, we’ll launch a (much much) bigger effort in 2016—big enough to win.”[14]

On July 28, 2014, the PAC began a $12-million advertising campaign for the 2014 midterm elections. The plan was to spend the funds electing members of congress who are committed to getting money out of politics, regardless of their party affiliation. $4 million of this money was to be spent in Senate races in Iowa and New Hampshire.[16]

Targeted races in 2014[edit]

The Mayday PAC spent significant money helping the campaign of each of these candidates in 2014.[17] Each candidate was viewed by Mayday PAC as a supporter of campaign finance reform.

  • Ruben Gallego (D, AZ), who won his primary race on August 26 and was elected in November 2014, becoming the only winning non-incumbent supported by Mayday PAC, which spent $149,999 in supporting him. He supports the Government by the People Act which favors establishing a system of elections in which candidates who choose to accept only small donations receive matching funds.[18] Formerly elected in 2010, he served as assistant minority leader in the Arizona House of Representatives.
  • Carol Shea-Porter (D, NH), an incumbent who lost her election, despite $299,999 spent by Mayday on her behalf. She was the first woman to be elected to a federal office from New Hampshire.[19] She was a vocal opponent of the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision[20] and supported the Consumer Protection Act. She voted for the CARD Act.[19]
  • Walter B. Jones, Jr. (R, NC), who won his election, was an incumbent who received $99,999 in support from Mayday. He was the only Republican member of Congress to publicly support campaign finance reform and the only Republican co-sponsor of the Government by the People Act (matching funds for small donors)[21] and the DISCLOSE Act, legislation to reveal the donors behind campaign advertisements.[22] He is also a critic of the Citizens United Supreme Court decision.
  • Jim Rubens (R, NH), who lost his bid to defeat Scott Brown in the New Hampshire Republican U.S. Senate primary, 24.5% to 49.9%.[23] Mayday spent $1,512,261 in favor of Rubens, plus $128,747 against Brown, who went on to lose the general election to incumbent Jeanne Shaheen.
  • Staci Appel (D, IA), who lost her election, despite $17,334 spent by Mayday in support of her, and $714,638 spent attacking her opposition, David Young. She was a former state senator who had pledged to support the Government By The People Act (public matching funds for small donors) and a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court’s Citizens United ruling. As a state senator, Appel sponsored legislation (SSB 1173) that would have established public financing of elections in Iowa for the first time.[24]
  • Rick Weiland (D, SD), who lost his election, despite $875,390 in spending from Mayday and $290,522 spent against his opponent, governor Mike Rounds. Weiland was regional director of FEMA, director of the South Dakota AARP, and a previous candidate for South Dakota’s at-large congressional district.[25]
  • Greg Orman (I, KS), who lost his election, despite $1,430,775 from Mayday spent attacking his opponent, incumbent Senator Pat Roberts.
  • Paul Clements (D, MI), who lost his election, despite $403,573 from Mayday plus $1,684,501 from Mayday spent attacking his opponent, incumbent Fred Upton.

Fundraising information[edit]

Goal Amount needed Date needed Amount raised Date raised Match amount * Sources
Raise money $1 million May 31, 2014 $1.1 million May 13, 2014 $1 million (total) Los Angeles Times,[6]Politico,[26]TechDirt[27]
Influence 5 races in 2014 $5 million June 30, 2014 $7.7 million July 9, 2014 $5 million (total) Daily Caller,[28][29]Politico[26]
2014 Final Fundraising $10,947,947 (final) November 4, 2014 MAYDAY PAC,[5]

See also[edit]


America: Less Democrat - Less Republican. More Constitution. T-Shirt. T-SHIRT SALE 15% OFF. Use code: SHIRTS15 - Available in tees, tanks and hoodies. - Made in America. - Printed on front or back. - Mens and womens shirts and designs. - Available in Black, White, Navy, Pink, Purple, Heather Gray and Military Green.



How Aaron Swartz Helped Inspire the Super PAC to End All Super PACs

Dec 8, 2017 – Lawrence Lessig and his allies are racing to raise $5 million by July 4 in an effort for campaign finance reform. … Today, Lessig is a man on a mission, and his latest campaign financereform effort may be the most unusual political action committee ever launched: Mayday PAC, “a Super PAC to end all Super PACs.” Lessig …

MAYDAY.US – A national grassroots campaign to fight corruption and …

Sep 19, 2017 – Getting money out of politics. Defending voting rights. Ending gerrymandering. We’re here to save democracy. Will you join us? Become a Member. What we’re doing: responsive. Fighting for the voices of all Americans. MAYDAY’s joined Fight for $15, the national fight against the fast food industry and their lobbyists, …

Lawrence Lessig Archives – – Soft Money Hard Law

Sep 19, 2017 – But there are risks, some of which are apparent in a new reform initiative from ProfessorLawrence Lessig’s: litigation to establish that states may not allocate … Walter Shapiro and Larry Lessighave argued over whether Lawrence Lessig’s Super PAC, Mayday, is poised to claim success in electing its endorsed candidates.

Political Reform in An Era of “Existential Politics” –

Feb 28, 2017 – Rick Pildes asks whether in this time of “existential politics,” when contestants forpolitical power perceive the very “identity of the country… to be at stake,” we might expect the steady degradation and eventual collapse of institutional norms. He is moved to this reflection by Judge Laurence Silberman’s recent column on Jim …

Is Our Electoral Process Broken? | Freak Out and Carry On – WBUR

Oct 26, 2017 – Recorded in front of a live audience, Ron and Heather talk with Harvard Law ProfessorLawrence Lessig. They discuss reforming the electoral college, the gerrymandering case in front of the Supreme Court, and how to get money out of politics.

Lawrence Lessig – Wikipedia

Nov 27, 2017 – Lester Lawrence “Larry” Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist. He is the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and the former director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University. Lessig was a candidate for the Democratic Party’s …

Wolf PAC – Wikipedia

Sep 13, 2017 – There are two things that have to change: the way we fund elections and the ability to eliminate entities like Super PACs from dominating the political arena.” John McGinnis, a Northwestern University professor of constitutional law, disagreed with his assessment. “I think it’s a very bad idea,” he opined. “I think we should …

Citizen Equality Act of 2017 – Wikipedia

Aug 4, 2017 – The Citizen Equality Act of 2017 is a draft piece of legislation proposed by former 2016 American presidential candidate Lawrence Lessig. The act was the centerpiece of Lessig’s campaign platform, encompassing his plans for campaign finance reform, expansion of voting access, and revised districting laws. Lessig had …

Justice Democrat Ro Khanna Wants to Reform Campaign Finance …

Jul 19, 2017 – Today, the financially powerful, whose ranks include the rich, corporations (nonprofit or otherwise) and their PACs, and even foreign governments, pour money into … Undeterred, Khanna is also teaming up with Yale Political Science and Law Professor Bruce Ackerman and Harvard Law professorLawrence Lessig on an …

Harvard’s Larry Lessig Fails Again – Free Beacon


Dec 20, 2016 – Prior to his presidential run, Lessig ran a Super PAC with the stated mission of reducing the political influence of Super PACs. The group, Mayday PAC, ran ads in eight Senate races during the 2014 midterm elections. Lessig’s preferred candidates won just two of those races. After one Mayday-backed candidate was …


We need a digital economy where our data and our attention is not for sale to the highest-bidding authoritarian [dictator or oligarch] or demagogue

15 Dec

Zeynep Tufekci: We’re building a dystopia just to make people click on ads | think of all the data that Facebook has on you: every status update you ever typed, every Messenger conversation, every place you logged in from, all your photographs that you uploaded there. If you start typing something and change your mind and delete it, Facebook keeps those and analyzes them, too. Increasingly, it tries to match you with your offline data. It also purchases a lot of data from data brokers. It could be everything from your financial records to a good chunk of your browsing history. Right? In the US, such data is routinely collected, collated and sold. In Europe, they have tougher rules. … What if the system that we do not understand was picking up that it’s easier to sell Vegas tickets to people who are bipolar and about to enter the manic phase. Such people tend to become overspenders, compulsive gamblers. They could do this, and you’d have no clue that’s what they were picking up on. … I wanted to write something about one of his rallies, so I watched it a few times on YouTube. YouTube started recommending to me and autoplaying to me white supremacist videos in increasing order of extremism. If I watched one, it served up one even more extreme and autoplayed that one, too. If you watch Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders content, YouTube recommends and autoplays conspiracy left, and it goes downhill from there. … The algorithm has figured out that if you can entice people into thinking that you can show them something more hardcore, they’re more likely to stay on the site watching video after video going down that rabbit hole while Google serves them ads. Now, with nobody minding the ethics of the store, these sites can profile people who are Jew haters, who think that Jews are parasites and who have such explicit anti-Semitic content, and let you target them with ads. They can also mobilize algorithms to find for you look-alike audiences, people who do not have such explicit anti-Semitic content on their profile but who the algorithm detects may be susceptible to such messages, and lets you target them with ads, too. … Donald Trump’s social media manager disclosed that they were using Facebook dark posts to demobilize people, not to persuade them, but to convince them not to vote at all. And to do that, they targeted specifically, for example, African-American men in key cities like Philadelphia, and I’m going to read exactly what he said. I’m quoting. 12:29 They were using “nonpublic posts whose viewership the campaign controls so that only the people we want to see it see it. We modeled this. It will dramatically affect her ability to turn these people out.” 12:45 What’s in those dark posts? We have no idea. Facebook won’t tell us. … So the pictures were the only change, and that post shown just once turned out an additional 340,000 voters in that election, according to this research as confirmed by the voter rolls. … we no longer know if we’re seeing the same information or what anybody else is seeing, and without a common basis of information, little by little, public debate is becoming impossible, and we’re just at the beginning stages of this. These algorithms can quite easily infer things like your people’s ethnicity, religious and political views, personality traits, intelligence, happiness, use of addictive substances, parental separation, age and genders, just from Facebook likes. These algorithms can identify protesters even if their faces are partially concealed. … if authoritarianism is using overt fear to terrorize us, we’ll all be scared, but we’ll know it, we’ll hate it and we’ll resist it. But if the people in power are using these algorithms to quietly watch us, to judge us and to nudge us, to predict and identify the troublemakers and the rebels, to deploy persuasion architectures at scale and to manipulate individuals one by one using their personal, individual weaknesses and vulnerabilities, and if they’re doing it at scale through our private screens so that we don’t even know what our fellow citizens and neighbors are seeing, that authoritarianism will envelop us like a spider’s web and we may not even know we’re in it. … build artificial intelligence that supports us in our human goals but that is also constrained by our human values … We need a digital economy where our data and our attention is not for sale to the highest-bidding authoritarian or demagogue.



How to win ethically


today’s protests have become a bit like climbing Mt. Everest with the help of 60 Sherpas, and the Internet is our Sherpa. What we’re doing is taking the fast routes and not replacing the benefits of the slower work. Because, you see, the kind of work that went into organizing all those daunting, tedious logistical tasks did not just take care of those tasks, they also created the kind of organization that could think together collectively and make hard decisions together, create consensus and innovate, and maybe even more crucially, keep going together through differences. So when you see this March on Washington in 1963, when you look at that picture, where this is the march where Martin Luther King gave his famous “I have a dream” speech, 1963, you don’t just see a march and you don’t just hear a powerful speech, you also see the painstaking, long-term work that can put on that march. And if you’re in power, you realize you have to take the capacity signaled by that march, not just the march, but the capacity signaled by that march, seriously. In contrast, when you look at Occupy’s global marches that were organized in two weeks, you see a lot of discontent, but you don’t necessarily see teeth that can bite over the long term.And crucially, the Civil Rights Movement innovated tactically from boycotts to lunch counter sit-ins to pickets to marches to freedom rides. Today’s movements scale up very quickly without the organizational base that can see them through the challenges. They feel a little like startups that got very big without knowing what to do next, and they rarely manage to shift tactically because they don’t have the depth of capacity to weather such transitions.

his party starts getting ready for the next election the day after the last one, and he spends all day every day meeting with voters in their homes, in their wedding parties, circumcision ceremonies, and then he meets with his colleagues to compare notes. … Today’s social movements want to operate informally. They do not want institutional leadership. They want to stay out of politics because they fear corruption and cooptation. They have a point.Modern representative democracies are being strangled in many countries by powerful interests. But operating this way makes it hard for them to sustain over the long term and exert leverage over the system, which leads to frustrated protesters dropping out, and even more corrupt politics. And politics and democracy without an effective challenge hobbles,because the causes that have inspired the modern recent movements are crucial. Climate change is barreling towards us. Inequality is stifling human growth and potential and economies. Authoritarianism is choking many countries. We need movements to be more effective.


I’ve spent much of my career working with journalists, with bloggers, with activists, with human rights researchers all around the world, and I’ve come to the conclusion that if our democratic societies do not double down on protecting and defending human rights, freedom of the press and a free and open internet, radical extremist ideologies are much more likely to persist.


Anti-terror measures quickly turn into state repressionwithout strong protection for minority communitiesand for peaceful debate;this needs to be supported by a robust, independent local media.

To counter the terrorist propaganda spreading all over the internet,in Europe, Internet Referral Units are being set up,so that people can report on extremist content that they findand get it censored.The problem is,that all of this propaganda, monitoring and censorshipcompletely fails to make up for the factthat the people who are the most credible voices,who can present credible ideas and alternative solutionsto real economic, social and political problems in their communitythat are causing people to turn to extremism in the first place,are being silenced by their own governments.


Will Potter: The secret US prisons you’ve never heard of before | TED Talk | TED.com

Ocean Outfall in FL

14 Dec

Inertia - Underwater Sculpture by Jason deCaires Taylor - Underwater Museum in Cancun, MX - an overweight man sitting in front of TV surrounded by rubbish thrown carelessly around him; an amazingly detailed sculpture down to the remote control, sofa cushions, and hamburger and fries on his lap. This figure is pretty self-explanatory as well and continues to show mankind's carelessness and how we pollute our planet. TV has holes so that sea life can enter and is a great breeding ground for them.


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Leak from massive Miami ocean sewage pipe left unfixed for a year | Miami Herald

UPDATED JULY 31, 2017 11:00 PM

Already, two pipes have almost entirely stopped flowing in Palm Beach County, where conservationists say they’ve begun to see an improvement. Meanwhile, the four other pipes — two in Broward, two in Miami-Dade — collectively flush coastal waters with an average of 188 million gallons of wastewater every day.

To reduce flows ahead of the deadline, cities and counties are building new plants, drilling deep underground wells and upgrading treatment systems to reuse more freshwater.

Boca Raton utility customers saw an 8 percent increase in 2008 to help cover their costs, while Broward’s rate already increases about 3 percent each year — enough to pay for any upgrades, according to interviews with wastewater management officials.

Officials in Miami-Dade and Hollywood haven’t yet said how much of an increase customers could see in their bills.

Since 2008, treatment plants have reduced flows from the outfall pipes by about 37 percent, from a daily average of more than 300 million gallons before the law went into effect, officials said.

“If they are on schedule and actually close down the outfalls, I would consider that to be a major victory for the environment,” said Burt Saunders, the former state senator responsible for the law


Delray Beach outfall pipe

Though the nutrients do not pose a direct threat to humans, the chemical cocktail of partly treated human waste feeds algal blooms that form thick, green mats of seaweed, said Brian LaPointe, Florida Atlantic University research professor at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute.

Florida’s coral reefs, the third largest barrier reef system in the world, are being smothered like hash browns, but it’s not in melted cheese.

The seaweed smothers coral and washes up on South Florida’s beaches, he said. LaPointe, who has been monitoring the reefs since the early 1980s, has watched coral populations dwindle from 80 percent reef cover to just 4 percent, he said.

“The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus on the reef right now are too high for healthy coral growth,” LaPointe said.

Florida’s 360-mile-long reef is a natural masterpiece that acts as a protective barrier and a marine nursery. It’s also an economic engine that drives tourism and commercial fishing estimated to generate $1.9 billion for South Florida each year, according to a 2006 Department of Environmental Protection report.

The partially treated sewage is one of many stressors contributing to the coral’s decline. Others include rising ocean temperatures, dredging, farm and lawn runoff.

Lawmakers used LaPointe’s research and others’ as the foundation for the law that called for ending the regular use of the pipes. Saunders filed the legislation during his last term in office in 2008 while serving as the Senate’s environmental committee chairman.

It was a fairly easy sell, Saunders said.

“It was something that really was the right thing regardless of whether it had a direct impact on people,” Saunders said. “You just cannot dump that much polluted water into the ocean every day and not have some localized impacts.”

Samuel Falcon, 25, was the last of his dive group to enter the waters off Pompano Beach last fall. He dropped into a big, brown plume of freshwater. “I was confused until I saw it,” he said.

There, about a 100 feet underwater, he found the 4.5-foot-wide opening of Broward County’s northern outfall pipe, Falcon said.

Inside the opening sat a goliath grouper — likely looking to make a meal of the fish that often swarm the cloud, he said.

“If we were to take customers, they would give us an earful about how gross it was,” Falcon said. “Your impression is it’s filthy water being introduced to the reef environment.”

Plans to close the outfalls

The Delray/Boynton Beach pipe was the first to end regular use in 2009. Boca Raton transitioned to reusing nearly 100 percent of its wastewater about two years ago, said Chris Helfrich, Boca utility director.

The plant treats the water and sells it to large-scale water users, such as golf courses, and an estimated 1,600 commercial and residential properties, he said.

“Taking freshwater and putting it in the ocean wasn’t something that Boca believed was good policy,” Helfrich said. “We always believed there was better use of the freshwater.”

Broward and Miami-Dade face their own sets of challenges: Large service populations, saltwater intrusion and aging sewer systems have made it more difficult and more expensive to end use of the pipes.

Miami-Dade estimates it will cost about $5.7 billion to comply with the legislation, according to a 2016 compliance plan update. Most of the funding will come from bonds and loans, but utility customers can expect to pay off the debt through periodic rate increases, according to the report.

Broward’s two outfall pipe operators — one in Pompano Beach and the other in Hollywood — estimate it will cost them a $100 million each.

In Hollywood, saltwater leaks into small cracks in its aging sewer system, making it difficult for the wastewater treatment plant to reuse as much water as other plants, said Steve Joseph, Hollywood’s director of public utilities.

Complying with the regulations is a balancing act between meeting requirements and hiking utility rates, Joseph said.

“That’s one of the things we’ve been trying to let the folks at Tallahassee know. Every one of us want to try and do the right thing, but at the end of the day, you are a utility,” Joseph said. “At the end of the day, you are going to have people choking because you have to raise rates.”

Hollywood plans to conduct a study to determine if, or by how much, the utility would need to raise rates to comply with the law, said Joann Hussey, a city spokeswoman.

Miami-Dade has similar problems, but bigger.

The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department is the largest in the Southeast United States, serving about 2.3 million people, said Jennifer Messemer-Skold, Miami-Dade spokeswoman.

Every day, Miami-Dade’s pipes dump about 151 million gallons into the ocean, she said.

To meet the 2025 deadline, the plant plans to build a fourth wastewater treatment plant for about $350 million, said Hardeep Anand, the department’s deputy director.

Additionally, the county plans to build 25 deep-injection wells by 2025, he said.

Treatment plants in Broward have similar plans to build four more wells to meet the deadline. Most wells store the partially treated sewage at least 3,000 feet underground, below aquifers used for drinking water.

“From a regular person’s standpoint, as consumers we tend to take things for granted,” Anand said. “When you flush your toilet, the water magically disappears.”

Moving forward

Even after all of the wastewater-treatment plants end regular use of the outfall pipes, they won’t permanently shutter them.

The legislation allows plants to keep using them, as needed, for emergencies.

Despite ending regular use in 2009, the Delray/Boynton Beach outfall pipe most recently discharged 12.2 million gallons into the ocean in March, said Doug Levine, South Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant manager.

Levine said he isn’t sure what overwhelmed the filtration system and upset the plant earlier this year. But it’s sometimes caused by a buildup of grease and oils, resulting in the discharge.

Plants can discharge for other reasons, too, including excess flows from heavy rains.

But the occasional discharge doesn’t really bother Ed Tichenor, whose research was also used to help pass the 2008 legislation.

Tichenor, director of Palm Beach County Reef Rescue, said there’s a difference between the occasional use and dumping millions of gallons every single day.

“It degrades the environment. However, to be realistic, they closed the outfall and are only using it under certain circumstances, which are written into the permit,” he said. “The reefs are in much, much better condition since the [Boynton/Delray] outfall was closed.”

Some scientists disagree about the size of the impact wastewater has had on the marine habitat relative to other threats, such as dredging, rising ocean temperatures and agricultural runoff.

Fred Bloetscher, an associate professor of civil engineering at Florida Atlantic University, said it’s easy to blame the pipes, but they are not the top contributors.

“I think it’s reasonable if we are going to spend those billions, how are we going to get the best bang for our buck?” Bloetscher said.

Still, LaPointe said reducing the concentration of nutrients and closing the pipes gives coral a fighting chance.

“The rules are there to phase out those outfalls by 2025. Once that is done these waters are going to clean up, but don’t forget there are more people moving to Florida all the time.”





Ocean Outfall Legislation Compliance Plan – Miami-Dade County



The Oligarchs who rule the world cooperate to fool us and take our precious money! Do not fall for their scams! When the market corrects, who will lose from the risky Bitcoin investments and how much? “When your cab driver starts talking about Bitcoin, it’s time to sell” writes Financial Post. Let’s protect our hard-working cab drivers from hardship! How many Bitcoins change hands every day, week,…? Can interlopers use it for illegal transactions as in the past?

13 Dec

Whether it’s the shoeshine boy of decades past, or the taxi driver of more recent times, an old investing adage suggests that when somebody you wouldn’t expect is talking stocks or giving you portfolio advice, it’s time to sell.

And these days, it’s hard to find someone who isn’t talking about Bitcoin.

From high school students discussing how to purchase fractions of the digital currency over lunch at McDonald’s to YouTube celebrities giving advice on how to make a quick buck, or thousand, the mania around the cryptocurrency has been mounting for weeks.

On Sunday night, it grew even stronger, as Cboe Global Markets Inc. launched the trading of Bitcoin futures contracts, leading to another price surge and the imposition of trading halts to quell the frenzied activity.

On Monday, the rise continued, as prices for the contract expiring on Jan. 17 — the vast majority of CBOE bitcoin futures traded so far have been of the one-month variety — leapt more than US$3,100 to US$18,600 by late afternoon.

The price of Bitcoin itself, as report by Coindesk.com, also surged Monday, climbing nearly 13 cent to surpass US$17,000 for the first time.

“We’re obviously dealing with a global phenomenon that everyone can potentially partake in — both the creation of bitcoin, but also investing in it,” said Douglas Porter, chief economist at BMO Capital Markets. “There is a place for it, and certainly the blockchain technology does have a very important future. Having said that, every great mania or bubble starts off with a very compelling story.”

The most popular of many unregulated digital currencies with blockchain as the underpinning technology, bitcoin began 2017 just below US$1,000, and is up more than 275 per cent in the past three months alone.

“It has — to some extent — gotten a stamp of legitimacy from the fact that the CBOE has welcomed it, and the fact that so many central bank officials globally are now looking at it,” Porter said, noting speculation that the U.S. Federal Reserve may eventually issue its own cryptocurrency, and ensure Americans use it.

“We’re definitely hearing modern-day versions of the shoeshine boy story, which is usually a pretty good signal that we’re getting close to the top. Although, history has show that manias can go on a lot longer than many people believe is possible,” he added.

CBOE is using pricing data from Gemini, the cryptocurrency exchange founded by Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss. The twin brothers sued Facebook co-founder and chief executive Mark Zuckerberg over the idea behind the popular social network, and used part of the US$65 million settlement to invest at US$120 per bitcoin in 2013.

The Winklevoss twins’ bitcoin holdings are now estimated to be worth approximately US$1 billion, and that’s just the sort of story that has the mainstream public so interested in this complex digital entity that was launched with the intention to circumvent government currency controls, and make online transactions easier by eliminating the need for third parties.

The heavy interest forced the temporary shutdown of Cboe’s website, but the bitcoin wave still may only be in its early stages, as CME Group is set to launch its own trading later this month, and Nasdaq will likely follow in 2018. There are still strategists, currency traders and other experts on both Bay Street and Wall Street that have no opinion on Bitcoin — at least officially. But that’s changing quickly.

Matt Barasch, Canadian equity strategist at RBC Capital Markets, noted that institutional investors are now willing to entertain the idea that what’s happening with Bitcoin relates to the gold market.

“The argument has been that gold is a substitute for fiat currencies, and perhaps Bitcoin is simply starting to fill in part of that niche,” Barasch said.

In the era of Donald Trump, North Korea, and various other events and issues that have been thrown at investors in the past 12 months, many investors are wondering why gold hasn’t done better. That prompted Barasch to do some number crunching, based on the assumption that all the money that went into bitcoin during the past 12 months, went to gold instead. Gold is currently trading near US$1,250 per ounce, but would be at about US$1,325 in this scenario.

“From my lens, you can’t simply dismiss the question, and say this has nothing to do with gold,” Barasch said. “This is really the first year bitcoin has really mattered because the size of it has caused it to matter.

For now, however, investors will have a tough time putting bitcoin anywhere other than in the highly speculative portion of their portfolios. It’s possible that cryptocurrencies don’t even exist in a couple of years, and the market simply doesn’t have enough information to work with yet.

While bitcoin’s equity value shouldn’t be measured like a business because it doesn’t have profits or even operations, that hasn’t stopped people from doing so, and the figure is staggering.

“At the rate it’s going, it’s going to have a larger market cap than the Canadian stock market pretty soon,” Barasch said.

According to Coinmarketcap.com, bitcoin’s market cap is about US$280 billion … for those keeping track.



Bitcoin has ‘no intrinsic value,’ Brookfield CEO says: ‘It’s not for us’




Man charged more than $14K for 20-minute Uber ride: ‘I’m no longer laughing’


It wasn’t until Saturday that Salama’s issue was resolved and the charge was removed. By then, he and multiple people had reached out to Uber on his behalf — something he says is a huge problem.

“If it takes an army of people to tweet and post online to interest you and for you to respond,” he said, “that is a serious issue.”

Uber says it has apologized to Salama and that the issue “has been resolved.”

“We sincerely apologize to this rider for his experience,” a spokesperson for the company told SFGATE. “We have safeguards in place to help prevent something like this from happening, and we are working to understand how this occurred.”

It’s not the first time Uber has come under fire for surprising riders with huge bills, though it may be the first time that the receipt has clocked in at such a massive amount. In 2014, Uber charged some San Franciscans up to $500 to leave the Outside Lands music festival. More recently, a couple in Milwaukee was charged $898 on a route that was initially quoted to cost $214.





Margaret Heffernan: The dangers of willful blindness

Subtitles in 30 languages

… under the roof to keep houses warm during the long Montana winters. Vermiculite was in the playground. It was in the football ground. It was in the skating rink. What she didn’t learn until she started working this problem is vermiculite is a very toxic form of asbestos. … She thought, when everybody knows, they’ll want to do something, but actually nobody wanted to know.

…  Willful blindness is a legal concept which means, if there’s information that you could know and you should know but you somehow manage not to know, the law deems that you’re willfully blind. You have chosen not to know. There’s a lot of willful blindness around these days. You can see willful blindness in banks, when thousands of people sold mortgages to people who couldn’t afford them. You could see them in banks when interest rates were manipulated and everyone around knew what was going on, but everyone studiously ignored it. You can see willful blindness in the Catholic Church, where decades of child abuse went ignored. You could see willful blindnessin the run-up to the Iraq War. Willful blindness exists on epic scales like those, and it also exists on very small scales, in people’s families, in people’s homes and communities, and particularly in organizations and institutions. Companies that have been studied for willful blindness can be asked questions like, “Are there issues at work that people are afraid to raise?” And when academics have done studies like this of corporations in the United States,what they find is 85 percent of people say yes. Eighty-five percent of people know there’s a problem, but they won’t say anything. And when I duplicated the research in Europe, asking all the same questions, I found exactly the same number. Eighty-five percent. That’s a lot of silence. It’s a lot of blindness. And what’s really interesting is that when I go to companies in Switzerland, they tell me, “This is a uniquely Swiss problem.” And when I go to Germany, they say, “Oh yes, this is the German disease.” And when I go to companies in England, they say,“Oh, yeah, the British are really bad at this.” And the truth is, this is a human problem. We’re all, under certain circumstances, willfully blind. What the research shows is that some people are blind out of fear. They’re afraid of retaliation. And some people are blind because they think, well, seeing anything is just futile. Nothing’s ever going to change. If we make a protest, if we protest against the Iraq War, nothing changes, so why bother? Better not to see this stuff at all. And the recurrent theme that I encounter all the time is people say, “Well, you know, the people who do see, they’re whistleblowers, and we all know what happens to them.” So there’s this profound mythology around whistleblowers which says, first of all, they’re all crazy. But what I’ve found going around the world and talking to whistleblowers is, actually,they’re very loyal and quite often very conservative people. They’re hugely dedicated to the institutions that they work for, and the reason that they speak up, the reason they insist on seeing, is because they care so much about the institution and want to keep it healthy. And the other thing that people often say about whistleblowers is, “Well, there’s no point, because you see what happens to them. They are crushed. Nobody would want to go through something like that.” And yet, when I talk to whistleblowers, the recurrent tone that I hear is pride. I think of Joe Darby. We all remember the photographs of Abu Ghraib, which so shocked the world and showed the kind of war that was being fought in Iraq. But I wonder who remembers Joe Darby, the very obedient, good soldier who found those photographs and handed them in. And he said, “You know, I’m not the kind of guy to rat people out, but some things just cross the line. Ignorance is bliss, they say, but you can’t put up with things like this.” I talked to Steve Bolsin, a British doctor, who fought for five years to draw attentionto a dangerous surgeon who was killing babies. And I asked him why he did it, and he said,“Well, it was really my daughter who prompted me to do it. She came up to me one night, and she just said, ‘Dad, you can’t let the kids die.'” Or I think of Cynthia Thomas, a really loyal army daughter and army wife, who, as she saw her friends and relations coming back from the Iraq War, was so shocked by their mental condition and the refusal of the military to recognize and acknowledge post-traumatic stress syndrome that she set up a cafe in the middle of a military town to give them legal, psychological and medical assistance. And she said to me, she said, “You know, Margaret, I always used to say I didn’t know what I wanted to be when I grow up. But I’ve found myself in this cause, and I’ll never be the same.” We all enjoy so many freedoms today, hard-won freedoms: the freedom to write and publish without fear of censorship, a freedom that wasn’t here the last time I came to Hungary; a freedom to vote, which women in particular had to fight so hard for; the freedom for people of different ethnicities and cultures and sexual orientation to live the way that they want. But freedom doesn’t exist if you don’t use it, and what whistleblowers do, and what people like Gayla Benefield do is they use the freedom that they have. And what they’re very prepared to do is recognize that yes, this is going to be an argument, and yes I’m going to have a lot of rowswith my neighbors and my colleagues and my friends, but I’m going to become very good at this conflict. I’m going to take on the naysayers, because they’ll make my argument better and stronger. I can collaborate with my opponents to become better at what I do. These are people of immense persistence, incredible patience, and an absolute determination not to be blind and not to be silent. When I went to Libby, Montana, I visited the asbestosis clinic that Gayla Benefield brought into being, a place where at first some of the people who wanted help and needed medical attention went in the back door because they didn’t want to acknowledge that she’d been right. I sat in a diner, and I watched as trucks drove up and down the highway, carting away the earth out of gardens and replacing it with fresh, uncontaminated soil. I took my 12-year-old daughter with me, because I really wanted her to meet Gayla. And she said, “Why? What’s the big deal?” I said, “She’s not a movie star, and she’s not a celebrity, and she’s not an expert, and Gayla’s the first person who’d say she’s not a saint. The really important thing about Gayla is she is ordinary. She’s like you, and she’s like me. She had freedom, and she was ready to use it.


Arme neuronale, https://www.google.com/search de video: nu apare ceva in romana! De ce? Biserica ce face? Le “foloseste” impotriva credinciosilor?

10 Dec


Nu apare ceva in romana! De ce? Biserica ce face? Le “foloseste” impotriva credinciosilor?

Navy SEAL : Certains soldats expérimentent la stimulation neuronale …

http://www.gentside.com › Actualités
Apr 6, 2017

Un nouveau dispositif d’entraînement est actuellement en phase de test au sein de cinq bases militaires …



Neuro Electro Magnetic Frequency Weapons 6182013 – YouTube

Jun 17, 2013 – Uploaded by thewatcher33

These people have demonic powers, it is not just a signal. I began to watch my neighbors who was targeting me …

Directed Energy Weapon Neuroscience – YouTube

May 29, 2016 – Uploaded by Omnisense

Directed Energy Weapon Neuroscience Capabilities; -Electromagnetic Mind Hacking / Electromagnetic Mind …

Electromagnetic Frequency Mind Control Weapons Dr. Patrick …

Oct 26, 2013 – Uploaded by cosmiccontinuum

TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/Darehl PLAYLIST: Mind Control: The Mechanics of Mind Control ~ MKULTRA …

Neuro Bass Weapons – YouTube

May 22, 2016 – Uploaded by Mike Allan

Fallout 4 Mod: Bass Weapons – Duration: 3:44. Bitflip 6,383 views · 3:44. Words Asweapons Bass cover …



Top 10 Cele Mai Puternice si Sofisticate Arme Ale Viitorului – YouTube

Oct 4, 2017 – Uploaded by Descoperitorul

In acest episod vorbim despre arme super super sofisticate si cele mai puternice. La cate sunt, cred ca …

VIDEO – Doi rusi au transformat cuptorul cu microunde in arma – 220

Jul 27, 2015

Doi rusi au transformat cuptorul cu microunde in arma. Documentare, Science & Tech. Atentie! Nu …


Jan 9, 2011 – Uploaded by SalvareaRomaniei

Arme electromagnetice cu microunde sau laserul infrarosu cu setare de fascicul larg de pe sateliti …

Oligarhii lumii se sprijina reciproc; ei ne abuzeaza si trebuie sa ii oprim prin a nu mai cumpara produsele lor si a nu mai lucra pentru ei si astfel oligarhii lumii vor ajunge la faliment. Trebuie sa eliminam si “oligarhii” statali/publici prin a urmari ce fac statele cu banii din activitatile economice de stat si din taxele pe care noi le platim; statul trebuie sa serveasca toti cetatenii egal nu doar pe cei angajati la stat!

10 Dec

Oligarhii: origini, influență și democrație – PLATZFORMA

Jan 21, 2014 – [7] Numărul atentatelor asupra businesmanilor ruși era în creștere la începutul tranziției. Pe măsură ce statul rus bate în retragere, racketul se extinde, așa că viitorii oligarhi sunt inevitabil contactați de lumea criminală. Paradoxal însă oligarhii reușesc să reziste presiunilor din lumeacriminală investind …

Missing: sprijina ‎reciproc

Oligarhie – Wikipedia

Oligarhia reprezintă guvernarea statului de către un grup, pervertită prin abuzul de putere. Oligarhiareprezintă o formă de guvernământ în care cea mai mare, sau întreaga putere politică este deținută de un mic segment al societății, în general cel mai reprezentativ din punctul de vedere al puterii, segment care se …

Missing: lumii ‎sprijina ‎reciproc

oligarh – definiție | dexonline

Dicționar dexonline. Definiții, conjugări, declinări, paradigme pentru oligarh din dicționarele: DEX ’09, DEX ’98, DLRLC, DOOM 2, Ortografic, DN, MDN ’00, NODEX.

Missing: lumii ‎sprijina ‎reciproc

„În primul rând să nu faci rău!” Despre degenerarea morală a …

Jun 2, 2016 – Decizia în fiecare din aceste opțiuni depinde (după analiza lui Zimbardo) de: obediența individuală (sunt pe lume unii mai obedienți decât alții), … americani, sinistrele jocuri cu prizonierii irakieni de la baza de la Abu Ghraib în Irak,– soldați care aveau un strict cod al tăcerii și apărăriireciproce.

[PDF]relaţia între elita politică şi cea intelectuală. conflict şi/sau colaborare?

by A SAMOILĂ – ‎Related articles

This work is the written text of an argumentative discourse assuming that intellectuals in general and the intellectual elite in particular cannot govern a state directly, in terms of professional status, profession, social status and role, but only as advisors to those who are at the top of the governmental pyramid. There are three.

Ilie CATRINOIU: Liberalismul faţă în faţă cu istoria (Convorbiri Literare …

Feb 16, 2012 – Faptul că în lume au existat democraţii înainte de apariţia capitalismului înseamnă că acele democraţii aveau la bază o piaţă liberă. Această piaţă …. Neavând mari proprietari de feude din care să se dezvolte mai târziu burghezia, nu am avut domni cumpăraţi de oligarhie care să conducă în interesul ei[17].

Cultura | Wikileaks – Secretul lui Polichinelle


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Apr 21, 2011 – Desigur ca ambele lumi se schimba prin interactiuni reciproce, dar nu se poate nega faptul ca influenta virtualului, chiar daca nu este predominanta, este mai benefica, deoarece se sprijinape expertiza, viziunea si imaginatia celor mai dinamici indivizi, inzestrati cu capacitati superioare de investigare si …

Fake news ruseşti cu sondaje „americane“ | LARICS | adevarul.ro


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Nov 13, 2017 – Acesta este un oligarh bogat şi, mulţi consideră că este, de departe, cel mai puternic om din ţară. … După declaraţiile gangsterilor şi acuzaţiile reciproce, a urmat aşa numitul „atac raider“ de la Primărie – adică preluarea instituţiei „pe uşa din dos“ de către reprezentantul Partidului Democrat care, la alegerile …

Elite fără putere | Sinteza – Revista Sinteza


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Jun 12, 2017 – Suntem şi în România într-un punct al revenirii discursului elitei trădătoare, a elitei vândute, mai ales că recent, revine în întreaga lume discuţia despre … Astăzi, discuţia despre naşterea unei oligarhii supranaţionale, sprijinită de forţa media şi a spectacolului, de sărăcia culturii maselor şi producerea …

Primele 4 sate au intrat în Uniunea Orheiul Nou. Localitățile vor …


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5 days ago – Uniunea Orheiul Nou prinde contur. În cadrul unei şedinţe de lucru, reprezentanţii grupurilor de iniţiativă din satele Pohorniceni, Budăi, Brăneşti şi Furceni au semnat procesul-verbal de aderare la aceasta, se arată într-un comunicat al Primăriei Orhei.

page: 2

“Cu Rusia în suflet“… — ACUM.TV

Mar 28, 2014 – Pe bună dreptate lumea liberă, care respectă valorile democraţiei, îşi pune acum întrebarea, nu ce urmează, ci cine urmează. …. în special din sud şi est) conducătorii de la cel mai înalt nivel şi colaboratorii lor sunt ei înşişi oligarhi, şi se înconjoară cu alţi oligarhi care le sunt loiali şi sesprijină reciproc.

Controverse indiene: studiile subalterne şi critica proiectului …

Jun 18, 2014 – despre Lumea a Treia (ori Sudul Global, cum este denumit acum spațiul de la periferialumii capitalului); Chibber, de pildă, folosește aproape … de cotitură: acuzînd absența dimensiunii gender și faptul că studiile subalterne se mai sprijină pe conceptul de subiect, aceste materiale au contribuit, într-o …




Elite fără putere

Popoarele caută, mai ales în vremuri de criză, diverşi ţapi ispăşitori. Un mecanism vechi al psihologiei colective, care astăzi aduce, de multe ori, în faţă, trădarea elitei conducătoare şi, în ultimele decenii, emigranţii. Dacă privim cu atenţie, avem un fel de duşman interior şi un altul care vine din interior, un cuplu perfect, care poate explica toate neputinţele noastre. Nici în România nu stăm mai bine la explicarea crizelor. Cel mai uşor dăm vina pe elita conducătoare, iar când scriu aceste rânduri, îmi vine, din reflex, să explic sau să pun cuvântul elită între ghilimele. Politicienii au, în România, cele mai mici scoruri de încredere din Europa, iar instituţii precum partidele politice, Parlamentul, Guvernul sau Preşedinţia, sunt la nişte nivele de respect şi încredere din partea oamenilor care arată o problemă importantă de fond pentru politica noastră. Deja ne-am obişnuit cu această stare de lucruri. Cele mai importante personaje politice de-abia ating o treime din sufragii, iar trei sferturi dintre oameni cred că elitele noastre duc ţara într-o direcţie greşită.

Nu vom mai intra în lunga discuţie despre definirea elitelor, ar fi o întreprindere care ar avea nevoie de comentarii ample şi de un spaţiu tipografic pe măsură. Vom face aşa cum au făcut un lung şir de filosofi, politologi în ultimele două secole, adică au considerat că elita este formată din mulţimea celor care deţin poziţii conducătoare în politică, economie sau administraţie şi/sau oamenii a căror prestaţie intelectuală o putem corela cu excelenţa sau, după cum demonstrează Max Weber, cu anumite forme de autoritate. Personal, apreciez cel mai mult una dintre definiţiile lui Tvetan Todorov care scrie: „Ce este un intelectual? În ce mă priveşte, delimitez înţelesul acestui cuvânt în felul următor: este un savant sau un artist (categorie care-i cuprinde şi pe scriitori) ce nu se mulţumeşte să facă ştiinţă ori să creeze opere de artă, să contribuie aşadar la propăşirea adevărului sau la înflorirea frumosului, ci se simte pe deasupra răspunzător de binele public, de valorile societăţii în care trăieşte, şi care participă, deci, la dezbaterea privitoare la aceste valori. Intelectualul înţeles în felul acesta se situează la egală distanţă de artistul sau de savantul care nu se preocupă de dimensiunea politică şi etică a operei sale; şi de predicatorul ori de politicianul de profesie, care nu creează vreo operă”[i].

Suntem şi în România într-un punct al revenirii discursului elitei trădătoare, a elitei vândute, mai ales că recent, revine în întreaga lume discuţia despre nocivitatea miliardarului George Soros şi naşterea unei aşa zise elite antinaţionale. Cu multe decenii în urmă, un mare sociolog american, Charles Wright Mills,[ii] în lucrarea The Power Elite (Elita puterii) a descris, cu instrumente şi argumente sociologice cantitative şi calitative, un fel de complot, de înţelegere secretă dintre politicieni, magnaţii capitalismului financiar şi lobby-ul militar-industrial, alianţă care denaturează grav esenţa democraţiei americane. Astăzi, discuţia despre naşterea unei oligarhii supranaţionale, sprijinită de forţa media şi a spectacolului, de sărăcia culturii maselor şi producerea sistematică de emoţie, mai puţin cunoaştere, este cât se poate de la modă. Cristopher Lasch[iii], într-o lucrare de mare influenţă acum câteva decenii (Revolta elitelor şi trădarea democraţiei), a spus-o clar: elita demisionează din rolul său istoric spre a-şi apăra privilegiile şi interesele şi impune regula „fără reguli”, cântă imnul pluralismului şi nu este deloc dispusă să lupte împotriva tendinţei unei părţi a concetăţenilor noştri, care cred despre ei înşişi că nu fac parte din aceeaşi republică, ci sunt nişte persoane importante din cadrul unor comunităţi. Cel mai mare rol în această revoltă îl are, crede Lasch, complexul mediatic care şi-a pierdut de asemenea rolul istoric, devenind o industrie care promovează falşi profeţi, divizarea gusturilor şi fragmentarea socială.

Fără a intra în varietatea tratărilor elitei sau rolul ei, voi mai aminti doar observaţia lui Giovanni Sartori[iv] care, vorbind despre rolul elitelor în stabilirea unui echilibru politic dinamic, scrie că efectul este generat de o problemă de concepţie, este important cum percep elitele politica, jocul de putere. Ca elita să aibă o influenţă pozitivă ar trebui să perceapă jocul politic ca pe o negociere continuă (politics-as-bargaining), dar când elita percepe politica precum un conflict, confruntare, război (politics-as-war), există foarte multe şanse pentru criză şi instabilitate. În acest ultim caz, elita nu-şi îndeplineşte rolul şi devine nefuncţională. De fapt, Sartori exprima cel mai bine un gând pe care l-au avut şi alţi politologi contemporani, Raymond Aron, Ralf Dahrendorf sau Robert Putnam, cu privire la importanţa unei dinamici de competiţie politică, bazată pe minime cadre de consens.

De fapt, la Higley şi Burton[v] este exprimat cel mai bine acest lucru printr-o tipologie a elitelor în care contrapun „elitele unificate consensual”, tipului elitelor conflictuale. Elitele consensuale sunt cele care ajung la un minim consens privind legile bătăliei politice şi ajung să practice un fel de partizanat reţinut (restrained partisanship), nu practică războiul total, conflictul continuu, bătălia dusă la extrem. În plus, acest tip de partizanat – partenerial, cum l-am putea numi – , se exprimă prin participarea la interacţiuni dintre tabere, participarea comună la decizii şi un nivel minim chiar de încredere reciprocă, dar mai ales de încredere în respectarea regulilor jocului de către toţi actorii.

Am argumentat în altă parte că, la peste două decenii de politică, în România nu s-a reuşit realizarea unui consens politic minimal[vi].

Cred că este cea mai importantă explicaţie pentru dizgraţia în care au ajuns astăzi elitele în România. Evident, orice democraţie are şi elemente de oligarhie. Elitele au un anumit monopol sau caută să îşi construiască grupuri, să se lupte pentru resurse, pentru legitimitate şi autoritate. Dar este o chestiune de măsură, de respectarea unor limite. În cazul nostru, elitele structurate după 1989 au avut ca imperativ puritatea, căutarea legitimităţii prin distanţarea totală, mistică aproape, faţă de „ceilalţi”. Ceilalţi devin duşmani, un fel de alteritate impură, faţă de care nu poţi să ai decât dispreţ sau dezgust. Grupurile se instalează în sinecuri confortabile şi nu se mai simt obligate să comunice cu alţii, să încerce să convingă.


Dacă la începutul anilor 90 au existat şi teme comune de dezbatere (cum să tăiem coada câinelui în trecerea la economia de piaţă, cât şi cum să privatizăm sau ce rol mai trebuie să aibă statul, câtă descentralizare trebuie făcută sau câtă autonomie să aibă minorităţile etnice, cu timpul aceste teme au dispărut. A dispărut piaţa ideilor[vii] şi astfel orice contacte între elitele noastre, lipsa unui interes comun. Nici astăzi nu suntem capabili să stabilim câteva priorităţi strategice pentru un proiect de ţară sau chiar pentru un program guvernamental.

În etapa următoare, intelectuali importanţi ai elitei au fost acuzaţi, cu argumente, pentru lipsa spiritului critic şi abandonarea imparţialităţii[viii]. Mulţi intelectuali au început sa devină doar vânători de sinecuri şi adulatori ai unor personaje politice dubioase sau profund corupte, pe principiul că „nu sunt perfecţi, dar sunt ai noştri”. Nu voi da exemple groteşti din ultimele decenii pentru a păstra discuţia la un nivel stilistic decent, exemplele fiind multiple şi, uneori, de un penibil absolut.

Cu timpul, această detaşare paradoxală, nu neutră, ci partizană, a creat, în fond, adevărate rezervaţii în care domină apărarea reciprocă şi narcisismul de grup, dincolo de orice criteriu şi de orice morală. Se vede tot mai clar în cazul unor intelectuali care progresiv sunt demonstraţi de CNSAS că au colaborat cu Securitatea, au plagiat ori au profesat alte forme de impostură. Se practică dubla măsură, se găsesc numeroase justificări sau se tace în situaţia în care este vorba despre un membru al grupului. Când este unul din grupul nostru, comentatorii spun că e problema lui de conştiinţă, victimele directe să-l judece, numai el şi conştiinţa lui grea pot înţelege calvarul tăcerii de câteva decenii. Iar dacă respectivul îşi cere scuze, atunci totul este un gest de extraordinară moralitate, un gest demn de urmat, bun de pus în manuale.

Competiţia este normală, elitele unificate consensual trebuie să fie pluraliste, deschise, supuse şi contestării. Până la urmă, şi circulaţia elitelor nu este un doar un mit. Elitele trebuie să se legitimeze sau chiar să accepte un proces continuu de legitimare, dar este nevoie de existenţa unui set minim de convenţii şi reguli care trebuie consimţite şi respectate. Principalul clivaj folosit drept criteriu, mai ales de elita de dreapta de la noi, cel al separării între neocomunişti şi ceilalţi (un fel de elite formate doar din „oameni de bine”, cum era formularea naivă de după revoluţie, nu prea funcţiona în practica politică şi socială, decât mai degrabă ca etichetare negativă. Azi vedem că unii luptători pentru eliberarea de sub spectrul stafiei comunismului erau foşti colaboratori ai vechii securităţi.

Dar cel mai important efect al acestor decenii de război total al elitelor şi mai ales al lipsei lor de comunicare este că elitele şi-au pierdut puterea. Încet, încet, majoritatea intelectualilor au fost scoşi din spaţiul puterii. Sinecuriştii fără nume din partide ocupă funcţii importante în conducerea unor domenii din educaţie, sănătate sau cultură.

În loc de a merge spre o fuziune a elitelor, elita politică a continuat şi ea procesul de separare de elita intelectuală sau tehnică. Fără personalităţi culturale şi inserţii intelectuale, elita politică este necredibilă şi îşi poate asigura cu greu cerinţele minime ale deciziei administrative. România se târăşte printr-o incredibilă criză de proiect şi de coeziune internă. Migraţia specialiştilor a devenit cea mai periculoasă pierdere pentru o ţară care a pierdut aproape un sfert din populaţia activă în doar 10 ani.

Elita fără putere are un sentiment de inutilitate şi de lehamite. Elita fără putere este acuzată, pe bună dreptate, că trădează societatea şi chiar naţiunea. În noile crize în care tot mai mulţi populişti propovăduiesc revenirea la emoţii simple şi la diferenţieri bazate pe culoare, rasă sau origine etnică, lipsa unei elite intelectuale este gravă. Nu poţi opri populismul sau extremismele doar prin articole de lege sau armate de jandarmi, este nevoie de o elită intelectuală credibilă, care să ducă bătălia conştientizării, a raţionalităţii. Elita fără de putere nu mai poate duce această luptă, chiar dacă ar vrea.

Într-o lucrare excelentă, Sabina Fati[ix] analiza elita Transilvaniei şi rolul ei în secolul al XIX-lea şi începutul secolului XX. Autoarea constată că elita românească era redusă din punct de vedere numeric, dar şi din perspectiva forţei economice sau a prezenţei în administraţie. Doar 5% dintre români erau întreprinzători în industrie şi comerţ sau aveau profesii liberale ori lucrau ca funcţionari publici, iar din totalul de 34.135 de funcţii în administraţie (pe total Ungaria) aveau doar 4%, faţă de maghiari care avea 87%. La fel se întâmpla şi în cazul proprietăţilor, cu toate că ponderea românilor în cadrul populaţiei Transilvaniei era covârşitor majoritară. Astfel că autoarea conchide că elita noastră era mai degrabă una simbolică având puţine poziţii de putere. Chiar şi aşa, aceasta elită simbolică, nu a fost lipsită de putere, deoarece era coezivă şi a reuşit eficient să păstreze limba, identitatea, să creeze mii de organizaţii civice. Această elită a valorificat toate elementele jocului politic de atunci şi a reuşit să aibă forţa credibilităţii pentru români, dar un atu important a fost lupta cu mijloacele pe care timpul istoric le considera ca legitime.

Revenind la zilele noastre, elita fără de putere de azi, chiar şi atunci când aceasta deţine poziţii de putere, şi-a pierdut forţa de acţiune. Pe bună dreptate este acuzată că nu se raportează la interesul comun, la păstrarea valorilor sau la exigenţele responsabilităţii pentru viitorul comun. Elita fără de putere de azi transmite imaginea că s-a retras şi că acum caută doar salvarea individuală, la nivelul grupului mic, al familiei sau al individului. Elita fără de putere îşi trimite copiii în străinătate la studii şi se bucură dacă ei nu se mai întorc. Dacă trebuie să acuzăm elita de azi pentru ceva, atunci cred că ea este vinovată că şi-a pierdut puterea, cea simbolică mai ales, forţa de a motiva, de a inspira şi de a produce proiectul de societate pe care oamenii îl aşteaptă ca pe o reţetă de la medic. Ca în celebrul roman „Dueliştii”, elita noastră este într-un conflict continuu căruia i-a uitat originea, mizele şi chiar sensul. Cu toate că mulţi indivizi au sentimentul solidarităţii cu cei apropiaţi sau al coeziunii, totul se întâmplă, parcă, undeva într-un circ, tot mai părăsit de spectatori, tot mai trist, unde o elită fără de putere se devorează pe sine şi nu mai este capabilă de niciun proiect colectiv.

[i] Todorov, T., Omul dezrădăcinat, Iaşi, Institutul European, 1999, trad. Ion Pop, p.125

[ii] Mills, C. Wright, The Power Elite, Oxford University Press, 1956

[iii] Lasch, C., La révolte des élites et la trahison de la démocratie, trad fr. 1994; Flammarion-Champs, 2010

[iv] Sartori, G., „Anti-Elitism Revisited”, în Government and Opposition, 1987, p. 224

[v] Higley, J., Burton, G. M., „The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdowns”, în American Sociological Review, vol. 1. 54, 1990, pp. 17-32

[vi] Dâncu, V.S., „În căutarea consensului politic” în Politically incorrect. Scenarii pentru o Românie posibilă, Şcoala Ardeleană, 2016, Cluj-Napoca

[vii] Dâncu, V.S., „Republica ideilor singure” în SintezaRevistă de cultură şi gândire strategică, numărul 26, martie 2016

[viii] Alina Mungiu Pipiddi, „Adevărata trădare a intelectualilor”, http://sar.org.ro/adevarata-tradare-a-intelectualilor/

[ix] Fati, S., Transilvania, o provincie în căutarea unui centru. Centru şi periferie în discursul politic al elitelor din Transilvania 1892-1918, Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitatea Etnoculturală, 2007, Cluj-Napoca




În Rusia (şi Ucraina şi alte câteva foste republici unionale, în special din sud şi est) conducătorii de la cel mai înalt nivel şi colaboratorii lor sunt ei înşişi oligarhi, şi se înconjoară cu alţi oligarhi care le sunt loiali şi se sprijină reciproc. Oligarhiilor care le refuză loialitatea li se confiscă proprietăţile şi sunt băgaţi la închisoare. În mod similar se petrec lucrurile la nivelele administrative mai joase.


“ocupă o funcție foarte importantă într-o mare companie de stat și a ajuns acolo culcându-se cu șefii pe care i-a avut de-a lungul timpului, ca s-o promoveze”: duce activitatea sexuala la eficienta economica marita? Daca nu, statul trebuie sa reevalueze promovarile pentru a le reface dupa merit si pasiunea pentru munca si rezultate!

9 Dec

„Soția mea a ajuns într-o funcție importantă culcându-se cu șefii pe care i-a avut de-a lungul timpului” – Stiri Online

Scrie-i Adelei pe adresa scrieadelei@libertatea.ro şi citește în Libertatea sfaturile ei.

Dragă Adela,
Mă numesc Alex și am aflat niște lucruri care m-au durut foarte tare despre soția mea. Evident, acesta nu este numele meu real. Soția mea, cu care sunt căsătorit de un an și jumătate, ocupă o funcție foarte importantă într-o mare companie de stat și a ajuns acolo culcându-se cu șefii pe care i-a avut de-a lungul timpului, ca s-o promoveze. Am aflat asta din mai multe surse pe care le-am considerat rău întenționate. Însă, când am întrebat-o, mai mult în glumă, dacă e adevărat, ea a recunoscut. Mi-a spus și faptul că nu are regrete și că astfel a ajuns să aibă un salariu enorm, care ne ajută pe noi să trăim bine etc. Eu ce să fac în acest moment? O iubeam, dar mi-a ascuns niște lucruri improtante, pe care le-am aflat prin „gura lumii”, și nu am certitudinea că n-o să facă la fel și data viitoare.
Adela răspunde:

Dragă Alex,
Înțeleg că este o problemă de încredere: dacă ea va face la fel și în viitor? Din câte spune, n-a făcut-o din dragoste, a făcut-o din interes. Cu tine, în măsura în care este capabilă de acest sentiment, a făcut-o din dragoste. Tu ești cel mai în măsură să simți dacă te iubește sau nu. Dacă te simți iubit, în principiu n-ar trebui să conteze ce a făcut, cu cine și de ce înainte ca ea să fie cu tine. Orgoliul tău masculin este acela care acum se simte rănit. Însă orgoliul îți poate distruge viața, pentru că te întreb: merită să rupi o căsnicie fericită și o viață liniștită și îmbelșugată numai din cauza lui? Cu ce rămâi dacă nu vei suporta gândul că ea și-a oferit trupul pentru funcții și bani? Te încălzește cu ceva? Asta nu arată decât că ea și-a dat seama că bărbații pot fi manipulați astfel – unii ar spune că e o femeie deșteaptă, ai putea fi mândru de ea. Și, chiar și în eventualitatea că ar mai face vreodată așa ceva – ceea ce este puțin proabil dacă chiar ține la tine – ar fi tot din interes, nu din dragoste. La urma urmei, nu poți să posezi o ființă umană la fel ca pe un obiect. Ea este stăpână pe trupul ei, la fel cum și tu ești pe al tău. Dacă sentimentele tale nu sunt rănite în nici un fel, dacă ea se poartă frumos cu tine și te iubește, de ce să-ți strici tu viața numai din cauza unor guri rele? Poți să le spui: ”Ce a făcut sau face nevastă-mea, e treaba ei și a noastră, nu a ta”. De fapt, ei vorbesc din invidie, pentru că dacă erau atât de deștepți, de ce n-au găsit și ei o cale de a ajunge unde a ajuns ea? Dacă, însă, te vei simți vreodată trădat și înșelat, dacă o prinzi că te minte și devine distantă și rece, abia atunci te poți îngrijora. Până atunci, ce rost ar avea? Mai ales că, atunci când ai întrebat-o, ea nu te-a mințit. Asta arată că te iubește și că are încredere că o vei înțelege.

Peace education for all! We are related, all humans have a common ancestor 15,000 years ago. Za’molse – Abraham – Moses – Olmecis – Socrates – Euclid – Lao Tzu – Buddha – Darius – Alexander – Hannibal – Jesus – Decebal – Trajan – Constantine – Sri Gupta – Teo’tihuacanis – Mohammed – Genghis Han – MLK promoted trade and cultural freedom and want us to stop violence!

9 Dec


holy jesus budha mahomed – Google Search


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The Global Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness.
(The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) produces the Global Peace Index)

In assessing peacefulness, the GPI investigates the extent to which countries are involved in ongoing domestic and international conflicts. It also seeks to evaluate the level of harmony or discord within a nation; ten indicators broadly assess what might be described as a safety and security in society. The assertion is that low crime rates, minimal incidences of terrorist acts and violent demonstrations, harmonious relations with neighboring countries, a stable political scene and a small proportion of the population being internally displaced or refugees can be equated with peacefulness.
The GPI is composed of 22-23 qualitative and quantitative indicators, ranging from a nation’s level of military expenditure to its relations with neighboring countries and the level of respect for human rights. All of the indicators are banded on a scale of 1-5 and qualitative indicators are scored by the Economist Intelligence Unit’s extensive team of country analysts. The indicators are divided into three key thematic categories:

• 5 measures of ongoing conflict such as number of conflicts fought and number of deaths from organized conflict.
• 10 measures of societal safety and security such as number of displaced people, potential for terrorist acts, number of homicides, number of jailed population.
• 8 measures of militarization such as military expenditure, number of armed service personnel, ease of access to small arms and light weapons.

The overall score is weighted 60% for internal peace and 40% for external peace.
The GPI is then tested against a range of potential drivers or determinants of peace encompassing standards of governance and efficiency; the strength of formal and informal institutions and the political process; international openness; demographics; regional integration; religion and culture; and education and material well-being.
The main findings of the Global Peace Index are:

Peace is correlated to indicators such as income, schooling and the level of regional integration.
Peaceful countries often shared high levels of transparency of government and low corruption.
Small, stable countries which are part of regional blocks are most likely to get a higher ranking.
On average, violence accounts for 37% of GDP in the ten least peaceful countries, compared to only 3% for the ten most peaceful.
“Violence containment spending is economic activity related to the consequences or prevention of violence where the violence is directed against people or property”.
The global impact of violence containment in 2015 was $14.3 Trillion or about 13% of Gross World Product (GWP) or $5 per day per person on the planet.
The economic losses from just conflict in 2015 were $742 billion.
– The Institute for Economics and Peace
The world currently spends only around $10 billion per year on peace building.

A quick examination of the numbers reveals that the world continues to spend vastly disproportionate resources on creating and containing violence compared to what it spends on peace. In 2013 alone, UN peacekeeping expenditures of $8.27 billion totalled only 1.1% of the estimated $742 billion of economic losses from armed conflict.
When looking at peace-building – the activities that aim to create peace in the long term – those totaled $6.8 billion or only 0.9% the economic losses from conflict. The chart below highlights that the spending on peace-building and peace-keeping is minuscule when compared to the economic losses caused by conflict, representing just 2% in 2015.

The Global Peace Index: The GPI is composed of 22-23 qualitative and quantitative indicators

# – Indicator

1 – Number of external and internal conflicts fought.
2 – Number of deaths from organized conflict (external).
3 – Number of deaths from organized conflict (internal).
4 – Level of organized conflict (internal).
5 – Relations with neighboring countries.
6 – Level of perceived criminality in society.
7 – Number of refugees and displaced persons as percentage of population.
8 – Political instability.
9 – Terrorist activity.
10 – Political terror scale.
11 – Number of homicides per 100,000 people.
12 – Level of violent crime.
13 – Likelihood of violent demonstrations.
14 – Number of jailed persons per 100,000 people.
15 – Number of internal security officers and police per 100,000 people.
16 – Military expenditure as a percentage of GDP.
17 – Number of armed-services personnel.
18 – Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as recipient (imports) per 100,000 people.
19 – Volume of transfers of major conventional weapons as supplier (exports) per 100,000 people.
20 – Financial contribution to UN peacekeeping missions.
21 – Nuclear and heavy weapons capability.
22 – Ease of access to small arms and light weapons.

The total score is based on a scale of 1-5, 1 being at a high peace level, 5 having less peace.
As an approximate guide, scores under 1.5 have very high levels of peace, 1.5 – 2.0 have high levels, 2.0 – 2.5 have moderate peace levels, 2.5 – 3.0 have low levels of peace, over 3.0 have very low levels of peace. They are the ones most in need of our help, the same as if we were in their position and needed the help of our fellow man.

2017 rank — 2017 score — Country

1 – 1.111 – Iceland.
2 – 1.241 – New Zealand.
3 – 1.258 – Portugal.
4 – 1.265 – Austria.
5 – 1.337 – Denmark.
6 – 1.360 – Czech Republic.
7 – 1.364 – Slovenia.
8 – 1.371 – Canada.
9 – 1.373 – Switzerland.
10 – 1.408 – Ireland.
10 – 1.408 – Japan.
12 – 1.425 – Australia.
13 – 1.474 – Bhutan.
14 – 1.486 – Norway.
15 – 1.494 – Hungary.
16 – 1.500 – Germany.
17 – 1.515 – Finland.
18 – 1.516 – Sweden.
19 – 1.525 – Belgium.
19 – 1.525 – Netherlands.
21 – 1.534 – Singapore.
22 – 1.547 – Mauritius.
23 – 1.568 – Spain.
24 – 1.595 – Chile.
25 – 1.600 – Romania.
26 – 1.611 – Slovakia.
27 – 1.622 – Botswana.
28 – 1.631 – Bulgaria.
29 – 1.637 – Malaysia.
30 – 1.664 – Qatar.
31 – 1.665 – Croatia.
32 – 1.670 – Latvia.
33 – 1.676 – Poland.
34 – 1.701 – Costa Rica.
35 – 1.709 – Uruguay.
36 – 1.712 – Estonia.
37 – 1.732 – Lithuania.
38 – 1.737 – Italy.
39 – 1.760 – Sierra Leone.
40 – 1.782 – Taiwan.
41 – 1.786 – United Kingdom.
41 – 1.786 – Zambia.
43 – 1.793 – Ghana.
44 – 1.797 – Madagascar.
45 – 1.800 – Laos.
46 – 1.801 – Mongolia.
47 – 1.823 – Korea Republic.
48 – 1.825 – Malawi.
49 – 1.835 – Panama.
50 – 1.838 – Namibia.
51 – 1.839 – France.
52 – 1.85 – Indonesia.
53 – 1.866 – Timor-Leste.
54 – 1.876 – Tanzania.
55 – 1.880 – Argentina.
56 – 1.888 – Serbia.
57 – 1.908 – Albania.
58 – 1.909 – Kuwait.
59 – 1.919 – Vietnam.
60 – 1.929 – Senegal.
61 – 1.930 – Equatorial Guinea.
62 – 1.938 – Moldova.
63 – 1.939 – Togo.
64 – 1.940 – Cyprus.
65 – 1.944 – United Arab Emirates.
66 – 1.948 – Ecuador.
67 – 1.950 – Montenegro.
68 – 1.961 – Paraguay.
69 – 1.977 – Tunisia.
70 – 1.983 – Oman.
71 – 1.986 – Peru.
72 – 1.992 – Kazakhstan.
73 – 1.998 – Greece.
74 – 2.002 – Nicaragua.
75 – 2.004 – Morocco.
76 – 2.007 – Kosovo.
77 – 2.010 – Swaziland.
78 – 2.013 – Mozambique.
79 – 2.014 – Benin.
80 – 2.019 – Sri Lanka.
81 – 2.021 – Guyana.
82 – 2.023 – Liberia.
83 – 2.026 – Haiti.
84 – 2.035 – Bangladesh.
84 – 2.035 – Bosnia and Herzegovina.
86 – 2.045 – Bolivia.
87 – 2.052 – Gabon.
88 – 2.056 – Cuba.
89 – 2.065 – Cambodia.
90 – 2.066 – Lesotho.
91 – 2.070 – Burkina Faso.
92 – 2.072 – Jamaica.
93 – 2.080 – Nepal.
94 – 2.084 – Georgia.
95 – 2.087 – Jordan.
96 – 2.089 – Guinea.
97 – 2.095 – Papua New Guinea.
97 – 2.095 – Trinidad and Tobago.
99 – 2.011 – Dominican Republic.
100 – 2.116 – Angola.
101 – 2.132 – Uzbekistan.
102 – 2.133 – Macedonia.
103 – 2.141 – Belarus.
104 – 2.179 – Myanmar.
105 – 2.182 – Uganda.
106 – 2.185 – Honduras.
107 – 2.196 – Djibouti.
108 – 2.199 – Brazil.
109 – 2.201 – Algeria.
110 – 2.211 – Gambia.
111 – 2.216 – Kyrgyzstan.
112 – 2.22 – Armenia.
113 – 2.227 – Rwanda.
114 – 2.232 – United States.
115 – 2.239 – El Salvador.
116 – 2.242- China.
117 – 2.245 – Guatemala.
118 – 2.263 – Tajikistan.
119 – 2.270 – Turkmenistan.
120 – 2.286 – Thailand.
121 – 2.307 – Ivory Coast.
122 – 2.309 – Guinea-Bissau.
123 – 2.324 – South Africa.
124 – 2.334 – Republic of the Congo.
125 – 2.336 – Kenya.
126 – 2.343 – Niger.
127 – 2.352 – Zimbabwe.
128 – 2.355 – Mauritania.
129 – 2.364 – Iran.
130 – 2.39 – Cameroon.
131 – 2.404 – Bahrain.
132 – 2.426 – Azerbaijan.
133 – 2.474 – Saudi Arabia.
134 – 2.477 – Ethiopia.
135 – 2.495 – Chad.
136 – 2.505 – Eritrea.
137 – 2.541 – India.
138 – 2.555 – Philippines.
139 – 2.583 – Egypt.
140 – 2.596 – Mali.
141 – 2.641 – Burundi.
142 – 2.646 – Mexico.
143 – 2.652 – Venezuela.
144 – 2.707 – Israel.
145 – 2.774 – Palestine.
146 – 2.777 – Colombia.
146 – 2.777 – Turkey.
148 – 2.782 – Lebanon.
149 – 2.849 – Nigeria.
150 – 2.967 – DPR Korea.
151 – 3.047 – Russia.
152 – 3.058 – Pakistan.
153 – 3.061 – DR Congo.
154 – 3.184 – Ukraine.
155 – 3.213 – Central African Republic.
155 – 3.213 – Sudan.
158 – 3.387 – Somalia.
159 – 3.412 – Yemen.
160 – 3.524 – South Sudan.
161 – 3.556 – Iraq.
162 – 3.567 – Afghanistan.
163 – 3.814 – Syria.

– The Institute for Economics and Peace

Magna Carta (1215):

Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for “the Great Charter of the Liberties”), commonly called Magna Carta is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, leading to the First Barons’ War.

The Magna Carta marks one of the first times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power, and is now considered to be one of the first declarations of universal human rights.

The charter became part of English political life and was typically renewed by each monarch in turn, although as time went by and the fledgling English Parliament passed new laws, it lost some of its practical significance. At the end of the 16th century there was an upsurge in interest in Magna Carta. Lawyers and historians at the time believed that there was an ancient English constitution, going back to the days of the Anglo-Saxons, that protected individual English freedoms. They argued that the Norman invasion of 1066 had overthrown these rights, and that Magna Carta had been a popular attempt to restore them, making the charter an essential foundation for the contemporary powers of Parliament and legal principles such as habeas corpus. Although this historical account was badly flawed, jurists such as Sir Edward Coke used Magna Carta extensively in the early 17th century, arguing against the divine right of kings propounded by the Stuart monarchs.

The political myth of Magna Carta and its protection of ancient personal liberties persisted after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 until well into the 19th century. It influenced the early American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies and the formation of the American Constitution in 1787, which became the supreme law of the land in the new republic of the United States. Research by Victorian historians showed that the original 1215 charter had concerned the medieval relationship between the monarch and the barons, rather than the rights of ordinary people, but the charter remained a powerful, iconic document, even after almost all of its content was repealed from the statute books in the 19th and 20th centuries. Magna Carta still forms an important symbol of liberty today, often cited by politicians and campaigners, and is held in great respect by the British and American legal communities, Lord Denning describing it as “the greatest constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot”.

Table of Contents –

Peace 101: Peace Introduction

Introduction to Peace.
Peace definitions.
Types and locations of Peace.
Philosophy of peace in life.
Using the arts to teach peace.
Introductory Peace education through mindfulness, self awareness and interpersonal communications.

Peace 201: History of Humankind

The Ages of Humankind.
History of Human Civilization.
History of Human Achievement.
The Seven Wonders of the World.
History of Wars.
Deadliest Wars and Natural Disasters.
Brief Background of World Religions.

Peace 301: Peace Education

Peace processes and ways to facilitate peace.
Inner Peace, Enlightenment, Salvation and the End of Suffering.
Peace in countries and governments.
Peace organizations.
Peace awards.
Peace Treaties.

Peace 401: Peace in Practice

Practicing Peace in Real Life.
Teaching Peace.
Promoting Peace.
Peace Occupations.


˜5,900 BP (Bond event 4) — correlates with the 5.9 kiloyear event. The Sahara becomes a desert again and starts a mass migration. Indus valley, Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations may have been accelerated due to this event (3900 BCE).
˜8,200 BP (Bond event 5) — correlates with the 8.2 kiloyear event with sudden cooling lasting 200-400 years with severe drought in east Africa lasting 500 years. Likley due to large icewater increase into the Atlantic from North American glacial lakes bursting and causing 1.2 meter rise in sea level. (6200-6100 BCE).
˜9,400 BP (Bond event 6) — correlates with the Erdalen event of glacier activity in Norway, as well as with a cold event in China (7400 BCE).
˜10,300 BP (Bond event 7) — unnamed climate event (8300 BCE).
˜11,100 BP (Bond event 8) — beginning of the long duration “Younger Dryas” rapid chill (the most significant glacial period in the Halocene period) before the Boreal warm period (9100 BCE).

2070 BCE: Yu the Great establishes the Xia Dynasty in China, first dynasty to be mentioned in historical documents.

2000 BCE: Believed birth year of Abraham in Ur of the Chaldeans, Mesopotamia, who is the father of Abrahamic Religions which as of the 21st Century AD are adhered to by more than 50% of humanity.

2000 BCE: Indo-European people settle in Greece, Minoan palaces are built on Crete.

2000 BCE: The spice trade developed throughout South Asia and Middle East with cinnamon and black pepper, and in East Asia with herbs and pepper. Domestication of the horse.

1800 BCE: Babylon becomes the greatest power in Mesopotamia.

1800 BCE: Alphabetic writing emerges.

1800 BCE: The development of iron smelting was traditionally attributed to the Hittites of Anatolia of the Late Bronze Age. It was believed that they maintained a monopoly on iron working, and that their empire had been based on that advantage.

1700 BCE: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture.

1700 BCE: The beginning of Poverty Point Civilization in North America.

1700 BCE: Hammurabi of Babylon establishes the first legal code.

1600 BCE: Minoan civilization on Crete is destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Santorini island.

1600 BCE: Mycenaean civilization begins in Greece.

1600 BCE: The beginning of Shang Dynasty in China, evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system.

1600 BCE: Beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Babylon destroyed by the Hittites.

1500 BCE: Composition of the Rigveda is completed.

1500 BCE: Egyptian Empire establishes the peak of their power under Thutmose I.

1400-400 BCE: Olmec civilization flourishes in Pre-Columbian Mexico, during Mesoamerica’s Formative period.

1496 BCE: Traditional date for giving of the Ten Commandments to Moses at Mount Sinai ushering in monotheistic religion.

1300 BCE: Start of the Iron Age

. .1200 BCE: Bond event 2 — was associated with the collapse of the major bronze civilizations – in Indus valley, Greece, Egypt, Hittites etc. and roughly correlates with the Iron Age Cold Epoch (1200 – 800 BCE).

1200 BCE: The Hallstatt culture.

1190 BCE: Bronze Age collapse in Southwestern Asia and in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

1180 BCE: Disintegration of Hittite Empire.

1100 BCE: Use of Iron spreads.

1046 BCE: The Zhou force (led by King Wu of Zhou) overthrow the last king of Shang Dynasty; Zhou Dynasty established in China.

1000 BCE: The beginning of the Kingdom of Israel.

900 BCE: First Greek city States founded.

890 BCE: Approximate date for the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey, using the Bronze age collapse for main subject matter.

800 BCE: Rise of Greek city-states.

776 BCE: First recorded Olympic Games.

753 BCE: Founding of Rome.

747 BCE: Start of the Nubian dynasty of the Pharaohs.

745 BCE: Tiglath-Pileser III becomes the new king of Assyria. He starts conquering neighboring countries, (Babylon, Egypt) and turns Assyria into an empire.

728 BCE: Rise of the Median Empire.

722 BCE: Spring and Autumn period begins in China; Zhou Dynasty’s power is diminishing; the era of the Hundred Schools of Thought.

700 BCE: The construction of Marib Dam in Arabia Felix (Yemen). It was one of the engineering wonders of the ancient world and a central part of the South Arabian civilization.

660 BCE: Purported date of the accession of Jimmu, the mythical first Emperor of Japan.

653 BCE: Rise of Persian Empire.

612 BCE: An alliance between the Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians succeeds in destroying Nineveh and causing subsequent fall of the Assyrian empire.

600 BCE: First recorded map of the world, Babylonian Imago Mundi.

220 BCE: Around this date Eratosthenes (276–194 BCE) develops an improved map based on Alexander the Great’s campaigns and incorporate parallels and meridians, attesting to his understanding of the spherical nature of the earth. The world is no longer flat.



100: The Aeolipile, a simple steam turbine is recorded by Hero of Alexandria.


476: Romulus Augustus, last Western Roman Emperor is forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a chieftain of the Germanic Heruli, marking the symbolic end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer returns the imperial regalia to Eastern Roman Emperor [and the Pope of all Christians] Zeno in Constantinople in return for the title of dux of Italy.

476: Most frequently cited date for the end of Ancient History and the starting point of the Middle Ages.

529: Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law. This compiled centuries of legal writings and imperial pronouncements into three parts of one body of law.

529: Benedict of Nursia founds monastery at Monte Cassino. The first of twelve monasteries founded by Saint Benedict.

532: Nika Riots in Constantinople. Nearly half the city being burned or destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed.

550: End of Chinese silk monopoly.

581–618: Sui Dynasty in China. China unified once again during this period for the first time in almost 400 years.

590: Gregory the Great becomes Pope. The missionary work reached new levels during his pontificate, revolutionized the way of worship for the Catholic Church (Gregorian Chants), liturgy, etc., and was soon canonized after his death.

597: Augustine arrives in Kent. Christianization of England (Anglo-Saxons) begins.

600: Deliberate fires set for unknown reasons destroy major buildings in Teotihuacan. Destroys the Teotihu.

602–629: Last great Roman-Persian War. Long conflict leaves both empires exhausted and unable to cope with the newly united Arab armies under Islam in the 630’s.

604–609: Grand Canal in China is fully completed. Its main role throughout its history was the transport of grain to the capital.

610: Muhammad experiences his first vision, starts writing the Qur’an.

618–907: Tang Dynasty in China. The essential administrative system of this dynasty lasts for 286 years.

622: Muhammad flees Mecca for Medina marking the birth of Islam and designated as the first year of the Islamic Calendar, as Anno Hegirae.

638: Jerusalem captured by the Arab army, mostly Muslims, but with contingents of Syrian Christians.

641: Battle of Nehawand. Muslims conquer Persia.

645: In Japan, the Soga clan falls. This initiates a period of imitation of Chinese culture, The Nara period begins a year later.

650: Slav occupation of Balkans complete.

650: Persians develop the panemone windmill used to grind grain and transport water, consisting of a wall, with slits, surrounding a vertical axle containing four to eight fabric sails. Also used were light wood sails.

661: Sunni Caliph Mu’awiya founds the Umayyad dynasty.

663: Synod of Whitby. Roman Christianity triumphs over Celtic Christianity in England.

668: Ends of the Three Kingdoms period in Korea. Established a Unified Silla which led to the North South States Period 30 years later.

674: First Arab siege of Constantinople fails. First time Islamic armies defeated, forestalling Islamic conquest of Europe.

698: Arab army takes Carthage. End of Byzantine rule in North Africa.

698: North South States Period begins in Korea. Silla and Balhae coexisted in the south and north of the peninsula, respectively, until 926.

700: Period of the Pueblo cultures of Native American people in the southwestern United States.

711: Umayyad conquest of Hispania (Spain) under Tarik. Begins a period of Muslim rule within in the Al-Andalus (with various portions of Iberian peninsula) until nearly the end of the Fifteenth Century.

718: Second Arab attack on Constantinople, ending in failure. The combined Byzantine–Bulgarian forces stop the Arab threat in Southeastern Europe.

726: Iconoclast movement begun in the Byzantine Empire under Leo III. This was opposed by Pope Gregory II, and an important difference between the Roman and Byzantine churches.

732: Battle of Tours. Charles Martel halts Muslim advance. Significant moment that led to the forming of the Carolingian Empire for the Franks, and halted the advancement of the Moors in southwestern Europe.

735: Death of Bede. Bede was later regarded as “the father of English history.

793: The Vikings invade western and eastern Europe and were mainly from Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

. .

800: Carolingian empire reaches it peak, Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III. With his crowning, Charlemagne’s kingdom is officially recognized by the Papacy as the largest in Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire.

800: Gunpowder is invented. Kingdom of Ghana prospers based on salt trade.

827: Muslims invade Sicily. First encounter of attempts to conquer Byzantine Sicily, until the last Byzantine outpost was conquered in 965.

840: Muslims capture Bari and much of southern Italy.

843: Division of Charlemagne’s (Carolingian) Empire between his grandsons with the Treaty of Verdun. Sets the stage for the founding of the Holy Roman Empire and France as separate states.

843: Kenneth McAlpin becomes king of the Picts and Scots, creating the Kingdom of Alba.

862: Viking state in Russia founded under Rurik, first at Novgorod, then Kiev.

864: Christianization of Bulgaria.

866: Fujiwara period in Japan. Would become the most powerful clan during the Heian period in Japan for around three centuries.

866: Viking Great Army arrives in England. Northumbria, East Anglia, and Mercia were overwhelmed.

868: Earliest known printed book in China with a date.

871: Alfred the Great assumes the throne, the first king of a united England. He defended England from Viking invaders, formed new laws and fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.

872: Harold Fairhair becomes King of Norway.

874: Iceland is settled by Norsemen.

882: Kievan Rus’ is established. Would be sustained until the Mongol invasion of Rus’ over four and a half centuries, despite peaking during the middle 11th century during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise.

885: Arrival of the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Bulgaria. Creation of the Cyrillic script; in the following decades the country became the cultural and spiritual centre of the whole Eastern Orthodox part of the Slavic World.

893: Emperor Simeon I becomes ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in the Balkans. Golden age of the First Bulgarian Empire (896– 927). The Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School.

896: Arpad and the Magyars are present in Pannonia.

911: The Viking Rollo and his tribe settle in what is now Normandy by the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, founding the Duchy of Normandy.

916: Cities established on East African Coast.

917: Battle of Anchialus. Simeon I the Great defeats the Byzantines. Recognition of the Imperial Title of the Bulgarian rulers.

919: Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony elected German King. First king of the Ottonian Dynasty. Henry I considered the founder and first king of the medieval German state.

925: The first King of Croatia (rex Croatorum), Tomislav (910–928) of the Trpimirovic dynasty was crowned. Tomislav united Croats of Dalmatia and Pannonia into a single Kingdom, and created a sizeable state.

927: King Aethelstan the Glorious unites the heptarchy of The Anglo-Saxon nations of Wessex, Sussex, Essex, Kent, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria founding the Kingdom of England.

927: According to Theophanes Continuatus (The Continuer of Theophanes’s Chronicle) – Tomislav of Croatia defeated Bulgarian army of Tsar Simeon I under Duke Alogobotur, in battle of the Bosnian Highlands. Bulgarian expansion to the west was stopped.

927: Death of Simeon I the Great. Recognition of the Bulgarian Patriarchate, the first independent National Church in Europe.

929: Abd-ar-Rahman III of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus (part of the Iberian peninsula) takes the title of Caliph or ruler of the Islamic world. Beginning of the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031).

961: Fire lance in Song Dynasty China, developed first with a tube of bamboo and later with a metal tube that shot a weak gunpowder blast of flame and shrapnel, its earliest depiction is a painting found at Dunhuang. Fire lance is the earliest firearm in the world and one of the earliest gunpowder weapons. Fireworks first appear in China during the Song Dynasty (960–1279), in the early age of gunpowder.

. . 

962: Otto the Great crowned the Holy Roman Emperor. First to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor in nearly 40 years.

963–964: Otto deposes Pope John XII who is replaced with Pope Leo VIII. Citizens of Rome promise not to elect another Pope without Imperial approval.

965–967: Mieszko I of Poland and his court embrace Christianity, which becomes national religion.

969: John I Tzimiskes and Nikephoros II are executed. Sultane of Rums are proclaimed.

976: Death of John I Tzimiskes; Basil II (his co-emperor) takes sole power. Under Basil II zenith of the power of Eastern Empire after Justinian.

988: Volodymyr I of Kiev embraces Christianity, which becomes national religion.

989: Peace and Truce of God formed. The first movement of the Catholic Church using spiritual means to limit private war, and the first movement in medieval Europe to control society through non-violent means.

1001: Leif Ericson is to settle during the winter in present-day Canada at L’Anse aux Meadows. Ericson is to be the first European to settle in the Americas during the Norse exploration of the Americas.

1008: The Umayyad emirate at Cordoba collapes into civil war.

1014: Danes conquered England.

1016: King Canute the Great becomes King of England after the death of Edmund Ironside, with whom he shared the English throne. He also rules Norway and Denmark. Danes become kings of England for the next 26 years before the last rise of the Anglo-Saxons before the Norman Conquest.

1018: The Byzantines under Basil II conquer Bulgaria after a bitter 50-years struggle. Concludes the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria.

1021: The Tale of Genji, written by Murasaki Shikibu, is completed sometime before this date. It is sometimes called the world’s first novel, the first modern novel, the first psychological novel or the first novel still to be considered a classic.

1037: The Great Seljuk Empire is founded by Tughril Beg. Would be a major force during the first two Crusades, and an antagonist to the Byzantine Empire over the next century.

1047: Normans conquer southern Italy and Sicily.

1049: Pope Leo IX ascends to the papal throne. Leo IX was the pope that excommunicated Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius (who also excommunicated Leo), which caused the Great Schism.

1050: The astrolabe, an ancient tool of navigation, is first used in Europe. Early tool of marine navigators, astrologers, astronomers.

1054: The East-West Schism which divided the church into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Tensions will vary between the Catholic and Orthodox churches throughout the Middle Ages.

1075: Dictatus Papae in which Pope Gregory VII defines the powers of the pope. Peak of the Gregorian Reform, and an immense factor in the Investiture Controversy.

1077: Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV walks to Canossa where he stands barefoot in the snow to beg forgiveness of the Pope for his offences, and admitting defeat in the Investiture Controversy. This helps establish Papal rule over European heads of state for another 450 years.

1077: The Construction of the Tower of London begins. The tower of London was the ultimate keep of the British Empire.

1086: The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions. This is the first such undertaking since Roman times.

1088: University of Bologna is formed. It is the oldest university in Europe.

1095: Pope Urban issues the Crusades to capture the Holy Land, and to repel the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantine Empire from Alexios I Komnenos. This would be the first of 9 major Crusades, and a number of other crusades that would spread into the late 13th century. This would lead to the beginning of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which would last for nearly two centuries.

1098: The Cistercian Order is founded. Was a return to the original observance of the Rule of St. Benedict.

1098: Crusaders take Antioch.

1099: Crusaders take Jerusalem.

1102: Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary formed a personal union of two kingdoms united under the Hungarian king.

1109: In the Battle of Hundsfeld, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats Emperor Henry V. German expansion to the centre of Europe is stopped.

1116: The Byzantine army defeats the Turks at Philomelion. The Turks abandon the entire coastal area of Anatolia and all of western Anatolia.

1117: The University of Oxford is founded, the oldest university in the United Kingdom.

1118: The Knights Templar are founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city. Becomes the most recognizable, and impactful military orders during the Crusades.

1119: Mariner’s compass (wet compass) in Song Dynasty China: The earliest recorded use of magnetized needle for navigational purposes at sea is found in Zhu Yu’s book Pingzhou Table Talks of 1119 (written from 1111 to 1117).
The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water.
1120: Angkor Wat (Khmer: “Capital Temple”) is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world. It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, gradually transforming into a Buddhist temple towards the end of the 12th century.

1121: St. Norbert and 29 companions make their solemn vows marking the beginning of the Premonstratensian Order. This order played a significant role in evangelizing the Slavs, the Wends, to the east of the Holy Roman Empire.

1122: The Concordat of Worms was drawn up between Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II. This concordat ended the investiture struggle, but bitter rivalry between emperor and pope remained.

1123: The First Lateran Council followed and confirmed the Concordat of Worms.

1125: Lothair of Supplinburg, duke of Saxony, is elected Holy Roman Emperor instead of the nearest heir, Frederick of Swabia. This election marks the beginning of the great struggle between the Guelfs and the Ghibellines.

1125–1127: Jingkang Incident. The Jurchen soldiers sack Kaifeng, bringing an end to the Northern Song Dynasty in China; the Song moves further south and makes Lin’an their new capital.

1130: Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, a Royal title given him by the Antipope Anacletus II. This coronation marks the beginning of the Kingdom of Sicily and its Mediterranean empire under the Norman kings, which was able to take on the Holy Roman Empire, the Papacy, and the Byzantine Empire.

1175: Honen Shonin (Genku) founds the Jodo shu (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism. This event marks the beginning of the Buddhist sectarian movement in Japan.

1176: At the Battle of Legnano, the cavalry of Frederick Barbarossa is defeated by the infantry of the Lombard League. This is the first major defeat of cavalry by infantry, signaling the new role of the bourgeoisie.

1179: The Third Lateran Council limits papal electees to the cardinals alone, condemns simony, and forbids the promotion of anyone to the episcopate before the age of thirty.

1183: The final Peace of Constance between Frederick Barbarossa, the pope, and the Lombard towns is signed. The various articles of the treaty destroyed the unity of the Empire and Germany and Italy underwent separate developments.

1185: Windmills are first recorded.

1185: Uprising of Asen and Peter. The reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire.

1185: At the Battle of Dan no Ura, Minamoto Yoshitsune annihilates the Taira clan. The elimination of the Taira leaves the Minamoto the virtual rulers of Japan and marks the beginning of the first period of feudal rule known as the Kamakura Period.

1186: The future emperor Henry VI marries Constance of Sicily, heiress to the Sicilian throne. This marriage shifts the focus of the Guelphs/Ghibelline struggle to Sicily and marks the ruin of the House of Hohenstaufen.

1187: Saladin recaptures Jerusalem. Would lead to the Third Crusade.

1189: Richard I ascends the throne of England. His heavy taxation to finance his European ventures created an antipathy of barons and people toward the crown, but his being absent enabled the English to advance in their political development.

1189–1192: The Third Crusade follows upon Saladin’s uniting the Muslim world and recapturing Jerusalem. Despite managing to win several major battles, capturing Cypress, the Crusaders did not recapture Jerusalem.

1192: Minamoto no Yoritomo is appointed Sei-i Taishogun, or shogun for short. He is the first of a long line of military dictators to bear this title. The institution would last until 1913.

1193: Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji sack and burn the university at Nalanda. This is the beginning of the decline of Buddhism in India.

1193: The first known merchant guild.

1199: Europeans first use of compasses which allows advances in exploration, maritime trade and warfare. The familiar mariner’s dry compass uses a pivoting needle suspended above a compass-card in a glass box.

1202: The Fourth Crusade sacked Croatian town of Zadar (Zara), a rival of Venice. Unable to raise enough funds to pay to their Venetian contractors, the crusaders agreed to sack the city despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. Siege of Zara was the first major Crusade’s action and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders.

1204: Sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. Considered to be the beginning of the decline of the Byzantine Empire.

1205: Battle of Adrianople. The Bulgarians under Emperor Kaloyan defeat Baldwin I. Beginning of the decline of the Latin Empire.

1206: Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Mongols and the Mongol Empire was established. The Mongols would conquer much of Eurasia, changing former political borders.

1208: Pope Innocent III calls for the Albigensian Crusade which seeks to destroy a rival form of Christianity practiced by the Cathars.

1209: The University of Cambridge is founded.

1209: Founding of the Franciscan Order. One of the more significant orders in the Roman Catholic church, founded by Saint Francis of Assisi.

1212: Spanish Christians succeed in defeating the Moors in the long Reconquista campaigns, after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. By 1238, only the small southern Emirate of Granada remained under Muslim control.

1215: The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England. This marks one of the first times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power, and is now considered to be one of the first declarations of universal human rights.

1219: Serbian Orthodox Church becomes autocephalous under St. Sava, its first Archbishop.

1227: Genghis Khan dies. His kingdom is divided among his children and grandchildren: Empire of the Great Khan, Chagatai Khanate, Mongolian Homeland, and the Blue Horde and White Horde (Which would later become the Golden Horde).

1230: The Mali Empire of West Africa grows around the upper Niger inland delta.

1237–1240: Mongol invasion of Rus’ resumes. Causes the split of Kievan Rus’ into three components (present day Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, greatly effects various regions of raided lands in other parts of Europe; Golden Horde formed. Mongol control permits travel over much of Asia.

1248: Louie IX leads seventh crusade to Egypt.

1257: Founding of the University of Paris.

1257: Provisions of Oxford forced upon Henry III of England. This establishes a new form of government-limited regal authority.

1258: Siege of Baghdad. Mongols (the Ilkhanate) ensure control of the region; Generally considered the end of the Islamic Golden Age.

1258: The first Mongol invasion of Vietnam. The Mongol army was defeated by emperor Tran Thai Tong.

1260: Mamluks expel Mongols from Levant region. (Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey)

1261: Byzantines recapture Constantinople. Latin Empire Falls.

1270: Louie IX dies besieging Tunis on the eighth Crusade.

1272–73: The Ninth Crusade occurs. Considered to be the Last Major Crusade to take place in the Holy Land.

1273: Rudolph I of Germany is elected Holy Roman Emperor. This begins the Habsburg de facto domination of the crown that lasted until is dissolution in 1806.

1274: Thomas Aquinas’ work, Summa Theologica is published, after his death. Is the main staple of theology during the Middle Ages.

1279: Battle of Yamen. Marks the end of the Song Dynasty in China, and all of China is under the rule of Kubla Khan as the emperor, creating a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan.

1281: Japanese repel Mongol invasion.

1282: Sicilian Vespers. Sicilians massacre Angevins over a six-week period, after a Frenchman harassed a woman. Would mark a two decade period of war and peace treaties mainly between Aragon, Sicily, and the Angevins.

1283: First regulated Catalan Courts. Presided by king Peter III of Aragon for the whole Principality of Catalonia, it became in one of the first parliamentary bodies that banned the royal power to create legislation unilaterally.

1286: The first form of eyeglasses were produced in Italy by monks or craftsmen in Pisa (or perhaps Venice). This invention allowed people with vision problems and elderly people with fading eyesight to live happier and more productive lives.

1287: The third Mongol invasion of Vietnam. Decisive Vietnam victory. To avoid further conflict, agreement made to a tributary relationship with the Yuan dynasty.

1290: The city of Great Zimbabwe becomes a center of trade and East Africa.

1296: Edward I of England invades Scotland, starting the First War of Scottish Independence.

1297: The Battle of Stirling Bridge. William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance to England.

1298: Marco Polo publishes his tales of China, along with Rustichello da Pisa. A key step to the bridging of Asia and Europe in trade.

1299: The Ottoman Empire is founded by Osman I. Becomes longest lasting Islamic Empire, lasting over 600 years into the 20th century.

1302: Crusaders expelled from the Holy Land.

1307: The Knights Templar are rounded up and murdered by Philip the Fair of France, with the backing of the Pope. Hastens the demise of the order within a decade.

1307: Beginning of the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy during which the Popes moved to Avignon. Begins a period of over seven decades of the Papacy outside of Rome that would be one of the major factors of the Western Schism.

1310: Dante publishes his Divine Comedy. Is one of the most defining works of literature during the Late Middle Ages, and among the most recognizable in all of literature.

1314: Battle of Bannockburn. Robert the Bruce restores Scotland’s de facto independence.

1325: The Mexica found the city of Tenochtitlan. This would later be the epicenter and capital of the Aztec Empire until the Siege of Tenochtitlan 200 years later.

1377: Papacy returns to Rome.

1378: The Western Schism during which three claimant popes were elected simultaneously. The Avignon Papacy ends.

1380: Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to a victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo.

1380: Chaucer begins to write The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer’s greatest work, and one of the foundations towards the formation of the Modern English language.

1381: Peasants’ Revolt in England. Quickest-spread revolt in English history, and the most popular revolt of the Late Middle Ages.

1381: The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe. First print published in English (Vulgate).

1386: The University of Heidelberg is founded. It is the oldest university in Germany.

1389: Battle of Kosovo in Serbia. This was in many respects the decisive battle between the Turks, led by Sultan Murat, and Christian army, led by the Serbs and their duke Lazar. The battle took place in Kosovo, the southern province of the Medieval Serbian Empire. After this battle Turkish empire continued to spread over the Balkans, to finally reach Vienna.

1400: Bond event 0 – roughly correlates with the Little Ice Age (1400-1850 CE) and caused large migrations of Europeans around the world. The change in climate also caused massive droughts in India, weakening the already weak Mughal empire setting the stage for chaos and eventual European colonization.

1402: Battle of Ankara. Bayfuezid I is captured by Tamerlane’s forces, causing the interregnum of the Ottoman Empire.

1405: Chinese Naval Expeditions of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean (to Eastern Africa) begins, under the leadership of Zheng He. This will be the first of seven of the Ming Dynasty-sponsored expeditions, lasting until 1433.

1409: Ladislaus of Naples sells his “rights” on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for 100,000 ducats. Dalmatia would with some interruptions remain under Venetian rule for nearly four centuries, until 1797.

1415: Kingdom of Portugal conquers Ceuta. Beginning of the Portuguese Empire. Beginning of the Age of Discovery.

1415: Battle of Agincourt. Henry V and his army defeat a numerically superior French army, partially because of the newly introduced English longbow. The turning point in the Hundred Years’ War for 15th Century England that lead to the signing of the Treaty of Troyes signed 5 years later, making Henry V of England heir to the throne of France.

1417: The Council of Constance ends. The Western Schism comes to a close, and elects Pope Martin V as the sole pope.

1419: Hussite Wars begins after 4 years after the death of Jan Hus in central Europe, dealing with the followers of Jan Hus and those against them. Although the war was a stalemate (ended around 1434), it was another factor that[clarification needed] between the Catholics and Protestants before the Protestant Reformation.

1434: The Medici family rises to prominence in Florence. This ushers in a period of significance of the Medici’s, such as bankers, popes, queens (regents) and dukes, throughout Europe (mainly Italy, especially the Florentine Republic), over the next three centuries.

1438: Prince Cusi Yupanqui becomes the first Inca emperor. Inca civilization begins expanding and the Inca Empire is born.

1439: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press based on existing screw presses. The printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. The arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. The sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class.

1441: Portuguese navigators explore the coast of West Africa.

1442: Battle of Szeben. Third significant victory for the Hungarian forces led by Janos Hunyadi over the Ottoman forces.

1444: Battle of Varna. Final battle of the Crusade of Varna; Ottomans are victorious over the Hungarian-Polish armies, and Wladyslaw III of Poland dies.

1453: Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks. End of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire to some); Constantinople becomes capital of Ottoman Empire.

1453: The Hundred Years’ War ends. England’s once vast territories in France is now reduced to only Calais, which they eventually lose control of as well.

1492: Reconquista ends. Marks end of Moorish/Muslim rule within Iberian Peninsula; Unification of Spain and Portugal, respectively.

1492: Christopher Columbus reaches the New World (Caribbean). Age of Discovery into the New World begins.

1494: Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves. Pope’s ruling will lead to the division of Brazil and Spanish America, as well as the formation of the Spanish Philippines and Portuguese colonies in India and Africa.

1494–1559: Beginning of the Italian Wars between France and the Habsburgs. Italian Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states.

1495: Emperor Charles V rules Spains, Germany and South America.

1497: Vasco da Gama begins his first voyage from Europe to India and back. He was the first European to sail directly to Eastern Asia from Europe.

1497: John Cabot surveys Newfoundland Coast.

1499: Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the Battle of Zonchio.The first naval battle that used cannons in ships.

End of the Middle Ages, beginning of the Modern Era

1503: The Mona Lisa is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as “the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world.”

. .The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582).

It is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred. During the 16th century, Spain and Portugal explored the world’s seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia’s and Africa’s Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia.

This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century.

In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years’ War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work ever on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology.

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the once-obscure Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world.

China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time.
Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the South Asian sub continent. His rule significantly influenced arts, and culture in the region.
Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. It was later supported by Galileo Galilei, an Italian polymath: astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician, who played a major role in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century.
– Wikipedia

Thus in the 1500’s we found out that the earth is not the center of the universe, which was a blow to our ethnocentric human nature. Much later we discovered we are on a tiny, but beautiful planet in the arm of Orion in our Milky Way galaxy, orbiting a black hole. How many billions of galaxies exist in our universe, we have not quite determined. There is also speculation that there may be other universes out there. We still have much to learn. That is part of the beauty of being human.)

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years’ War, the Great Turkish War, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.

The United East India Company, (Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. A multinational company, it is also often considered to be the world’s first truly transnational corporation. In the early 1600s, the VOC became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was officially the first publicly traded company of the world, because it was the first company to be ever actually listed on an official stock exchange. As the first historical model of the quasi-fictional concept of the megacorporation, the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies.
With its pioneering institutional innovations, the company played a crucial role in business, socio-politico-economic, and financial history of the world. In the early modern period, the VOC was also the driving force behind the rise of corporate globalization, corporate identity, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, corporate finance, and financial capitalism. As a transcontinental employer, the VOC was an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment at the dawn of modern capitalism. The company was considered by many to be the first major and the most successful corporation in history.

In the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Edo period at the beginning of the century, starting the isolationist Sakoku policy that was to last until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming Dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing Dynasty.

European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton’s Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

– Wikipedia




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